Совершенствование коммуникативных умений.
- приобретение навыков самостоятельной работы;
- показать возможные образцы для монологического высказывания на этапе совершенствования речевых навыков по теме “Хакасия”.
- развитие интереса к предмету;
- развитие желания к получению большей информации по изучаемой теме;
- развитие логического мышления и языковой культуры;
- развитие способности понимать и ценить культуру других народов;
- формирование непредвзятого взгляда на мир.
- завершение формирования у учащихся представления о менталитете и культуре этноса, на земле которых мы живем;
- воспитание чувства гордости за сопричастность к истории, традициям и культуре народа Хакасии;
- воспитание чувства патриотизма, любви и уважения к Малой Родине.
Хакасские национальные костюмы; хакасские нагрудные украшения “Пого”.
Место проведения урока-экскурсии
Школьный музей краеведения
Основное содержание урока-экскурсии
Вступительное слово учителя.
Вступительное слово ведущей.
Выступления – сообщения детей.
- Из истории Хакасии.
- О географическом положении.
- Об эмблеме Хакасии.
- О флаге Хакасии.
- О климате и погоде.
- Население, районы, города.
- Исторические названия мест.
- Из истории традиций и праздников.
- Современный праздник “Тун-Пайрам”.
- О музыкальных традициях и о Хайджи.
- О композиторе А. А. Кенель.
- О композиторе Г. И. Челборакове.
- О родном городе Саяногорске.
- Реклама о Хакасии.
- Хакасский танец.
- Хакасская песня “Часхы пулуттар” - на хакасском и на английском языке.
Заключительное слово и подведение итогов урока учителем.
Steps of the lesson
Teacher: Dear friends!
The theme of our lesson today is: “Blossom, my native land!” or “Flower, my native part of the world”!
The aim of the lesson is: to get you to know at close range, about the Republic of Khakassiya.
Our lesson is unusual, because we have it in the school museum. The lesson will pass in the form of the excursion. It will be lead by our leader Oksana. Please, Oksana, you are welcome now.
Leader: Dear friends! Today we meet the guests from the USA and Great Britain. Here they are. Esteemed ladies and gentlemen! We are glad to see you in our town, at our school. Our meeting is devoted to the 10th anniversary of the Republic of Khakassiya, which was celebrated on the 3rd of July in the year of 2001. And now we invite our guests to the excursion about Khakassiya. Please, guides, you are welcome.
I would like to introduce you to some tellings from the history of Khakassiya. Our Republic has a long and eventful history. This land with favourable climate and good natural conditions has been attracting people since the Stone age. Ancient agriculture and cattle – breeding were concentrated in the valleys of the rivers Yenisei and Abakan. The Khakasian steppes and mountains – all bear the historical symbols of our present – day life, such as: stone statues, rock carvings, sites of ancient towns, gold, copper and iron ore mines. There are some 30000 archaeological monuments. The ancient monuments in Khakassiya have been studied for more than 260 years.
Leader: Thank you very much ( Thanks a lot, Thank you, etc). The next, please. (Please, the next).
The Republic of Khakassiya is situated in Southern Siberia. The area of the republic isn’t very large, only about 61 thousand square kilometers. Great Britain occupies, as we know, about 244 thousand square kilometers. It means that Khakassiya occupies about one fourth of the territory of Great Britain. The time difference between Khakassiya and Moscow is four hours, between Abakan and London – seven hours. Khakassiya occupies the western part of the so – called Minusinsk Basin. The Minusinsk Basin is crossed by a number of hill chains. These hill chains stretch in different directions. They are called Taskhyls. Our Republic is situated between 50 and 55 degrees North latitude, which corresponds to the geographical latitude of southern England. The geographical longitude of the Republic is about 90 degrees East. Khakassiya lies not far from the geographical center of Asia, which is located in the town of Kyzyl, the capital of the Republic of Tyva. The Yenisei, one of the longest rivers in Russia, flows in the east of our Republic. The geographical position of Khakassiya is very much like the geographical position of England. But unlike England, Khakassiya is situated far from the ocean. Besides, unlike England, our Republic is surrounded by very high mountains. The highest mountain ranges are concentrated in the southern part of Khakassiya. That is why the Republic has a continental climate. The climate of Khakassiya is much colder than in England. There are many hills in the valley of the river Yenisei covered with small forests. Our Republic borders on the 4 other subjects of the Russian Federation: 2 republics, 1 region and one territory. In the west it borders on the Kemerovo region and is separated from it by the Kuznetsky Ala–tow mountain system. In the southwest, Khakassiya borders on the Republic of Gorny Altai and is separated from it by the Sayany mountains. In the southeast the Sayany mountain ranges separate Khakassiya from the Republic of Tyva. In the east and in the north our Republic borders on the Krasnoyarsk Territory and separates from it by the river Yenisei. There is a large group of lakes in the north of the Republic. Lake Shira is famous all over the country for its sanatorium. People from different parts of Russia come to the sanatorium, which is situated on the coast of this lake.
(A Leader thanks each guide after his speech and invites another one to go on speaking)
The State Emblem of the Republic of Khakassiya was authorized by June 6, 1992. In the middle of the Emblem we can see the stylized blue panther in a frame of green birch tree branches. The element of a Khakasian national pattern – trefoil is located in the basis of birch tree branches. There is a solar mark of black-and-white colour in the top part of the Emblem. In the bottom part of the Emblem there is the inscription of black colour “Khakassiya”. A blue panther personifies eternity of life on the Earth, internal force of republic and successive connection of cultures of the modern and ancient population of Khakassiya. The figure of a panther is framed by branches of a birch tree, which is a sacred tree not only of the Khakas, but also of Russian people. This tree symbolizes the friendship between Khakasian and Russian peoples, general historical destiny of all peoples in Russia, testifies that the Republic of Khakassiya is in structure of Russian Federation.
The national Flag of Khakassiya consist of three horizontal and one vertical stripes. The 3 horizontal stripes – white, blue and red, mean that Khakassiya is the subject of the Russian Federation. The green vertical stripe on one side symbolizes the eternity of the human life on the Earth, Renaissance, brotherhood and friendship between all peoples living on this land. In the middle of the green stripe there is the black-and-white solar mark, which means the deep respect to the generations of people living on the land of Khakassiya.
I’d like to tell you about the climate and weather in our place. As we live in Siberia, our climate is continental. Each season lasts for 3 months. The hydro-electric power station influences the weather of our place greatly. The Yenisei river never gets frozen in winter. The characteristic feature of our weather is a strong wind, which blows even in winter months. Then it is very unpleasant. Spring is a very nice season. In April the fruit trees begin to blossom, the birds come back and make their nests, the sky is blue, the air is fresh. Snowdrops appear in the forests. All mountains become green. Summer in our place is rather hot. After hot working day people like to have a rest going to one of the lakes which are very many in the Republic. The water is warm and pleasant at the end of the day. On Saturday and Sunday the lakes’ coasts are full of people from the towns. There isn’t much rain as a rule, but in autumn it rains 3 or 4, or even more days a month. All trees change their colour from green to dark brown and bright yellow. This is the time, when all mountains become particoloured and our place is especially beautiful. After rain comes fine weather again. This time is called “Indian summer”. Then comes winter. Winter in our place isn’t very cold. The coldest month is January. Forests look like a fairy-tale. The trees are covered with heavy caps of snow.
The population of the Republic of Khakassiya is over 580 thousand people. There are five towns in Khakassiya. The biggest town is its capital – the town of Abakan. The second town is Chernogorsk. The third town is Sayanogorsk, then come Abaza and Sorsk. Khakassiya got the status of a Republic in 1991. Before getting the status of a Republic Khakassiya had a status of an autonomous Region. We celebrate the Day of the Republic on the third of July. Khakassyia is divided into eight administrative districts: the district of Tashtyp, the district of Askiz, the district of Bograd, then the districts of Beya, Altai, Ordzhonikidze, Ust-Abakan and Shira.
The Republic of Khakassiya is only a small part of southern Siberia, but there are hundreds of interesting place-names on the map of Khakassiya. Many names were given to some geographical objects of the Republic more than 2 thousand years ago. We do not know the language of the people who lived in this area in the 5th century before our era. But the place-names like AZAS, ANZAS, KUZAS, PYZAS, and so on belong to this language. So the linguists and historians studying the geographical map of the Republic think that the ‘ZAS’ – element in these place-names means ‘RIVER’ or ‘WATER’. The Khakas place-names were given to the geographical objects of the Region during the long period from the 6th century to the 20th century of our era. The word ‘TASH’ (or ‘TAS’) means ‘stone’ in the Khakas language. We can easily find this word in such place-names as ‘Tashtyp’ (a district centre in the south of the Republic), Tasheba (a small river not far from Abakan), Kharatash (or ‘Black stone’) – the Khakas name of the town of Chernogorsk.
Besides, there are many Mongolian place-names in Khakassiya (e.g., Biy-Buluk, Kuten-Buluk, and others; the word ‘Buluk’ means ‘place’, ‘land’ in the Mongolian language). The Mongolian place-names were brought to Khakassiya between the 13th and the 17th centuries of our era. In the 17th century the Russian people (the Cossacks) came to the Yenisei. At the very beginning of the 18th century the Cossacks came to Khakassiya. They brought many Russian place-names to this area. These place-names were given to the villages and other objects (Kopyovo, Bely Yar, and so on). Many place-names were changed after the Great October Socialist Revolution. Now we see on the map of Khakasia the names of Ordzhonikidze, Kalinin (well-known Soviet leaders in the post-revolutionary years); Bograd (a revolutionary killed by white guard in 1919 in Krasnoyarsk), and so on.
Yenisei is one of the longest Siberian rivers which rises in the neighbouring of Tyva Republic and flows to the north, to the Arctic Ocean. In Tyva the river is called ‘Ulug-Khem’ (‘big river’), and the Khakas name of the Yenisei is ‘Kim’. The word ‘Yenisei’ also means ‘big river’ in the language of the local Siberian peoples (Evenk and Ket). Chernogorsk gets its name from the important mineral coal, which was found there at the beginning of the 20th century. The meaning of the Khakas place-name ‘Khara-Tash’ is almost the same (black stone). Abaza is a town in the Tashtyp district. Its name is a shortening of the Russian word-combination ‘Abakansky zavod’. A big metal factory was founded there in 1867.
The native people of Khakassiya have their traditions too. The traditional holiday of the Khakas people is called ‘Tun-Pairam’ which means ‘Great Holiday’. ‘Tun-Pairam’ is traditionally celebrated at the beginning of summer. This is a lavish and original festival marking the arrival of summer which has come down to us through ages. The history of the Tun-Pairam Festival is connected with the history and the folklore of the Khakas people. Many centuries ago sheep-breeding, horse-breeding and hunting were the main occupations of the native population of Khakassiya. At the beginning of summer sheep were taken to their summer pasture lands. This was an important event in the life of the Khakas people. Usually the beginning of summer was celebrated by festivals in different parts of Khakassiya. Many people – sheep-breeders, horse-breeders, huntsmen – took part in the Tun Pairam Festivals. They sat around the holiday camp-fires drinking cold horse milk (‘Airan’), singing songs or took part in all kinds of competitions. The folk tradition of Tun-Pairam Festivals has a very long history. But for many years this tradition was forgotten. In 1980 the people of Khakassiya decided to revive the festival celebrations. At the beginning of summer 1980, the Tun Pairam was celebrated after a very long interval. The festival took place near the village of Askiz, a district center in the central part of Khakassiya. Since that each summer in the Basin glade in the center of the Great Burial Steppe the traditional national holiday known as Tun-Pairam is held.
The Tun-Pairam celebrations are a very interesting and colourful tradition. They are based on old folk legends about the heroic past of the Khakas people. One of these legends tells us about 7 heroic sisters who helped the native people of Khakassiya to struggle against the waters of the Askis river in spring. The people were very thankful to the heroic sisters for their help. Now you can see a group of 7 hills not far from the village of Askiz, which is called ‘Seven Sisters’. Today the celebrations of Tun-Pairam are not only a national, but also an international tradition. On the 12th of June, 1989, the celebrations were visited not only by people from Khakassiya but also by a great number of guests from different parts of Russia and by visitors from many foreign countries. Delegations from the Tyva Republic, Altai, Buryatiya and other parts of Russia were invited to the festival. Besides, delegations and groups of tourists came to the festival from Mongolia, Checkoslovakia, Vietnam, the German Democratic Republic, Italy and some other foreign countries. The festival was marked by an interesting cultural programme and all kinds of competitions in different sports: traditional horse racing, national wrestling, weight-lifting and so on. The Tun-Pairam celebrations are an important event in the development of the Republic’s art, poetry and musical culture. The festival also affords the opportunity to taste traditional folk dishes, visit the fair and exhibition-sales of works by unique artists and masters of applied arts – and try one’s luck at the local lottery. The people of Khakassiya are proud of their interesting folk tradition.
Music plays a great role in the life of people. The native people of Khakassiya have old musical traditions. For many centuries the ‘Khaidzhi’ (folk singer) was a very popular figure in a Khakas village. Usually the Khaidzhi traveled from one village to another. People liked to listen to the folk songs about the heroic life of the land, about their struggle for freedom and happy life. Usually the Khaidzhi played the traditional Khakas musical instrument called ‘Chatkhan’. The most outstanding Khaidzhis of the Khakas people knew hundreds of heroic songs. Semyon Prokopyevich Kadyshev (1885-1977) for example, was one of the most famous Khaidzhis of the Soviet period. In1958 he took part in a conference of Asian and African writers, which was organized in Tashkent. Besides, he took part in many other conferences and congresses devoted to folklore and folk singing.
Alexander Alexandrovich Kenel (1889-1970) played a great role in the development of music and musical education in Khakasia. A.A.Kenel was born in Saint Petersburg. Though his parents were not professional musicians (his father was an architect by profession), they were fond of music. That is why young Alexander was interested in music too. At first he did not want to become a professional musician. A.A.Kenel visited many towns in our country. He took part in concerts that were organized in Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, and other towns of Siberia. In 1942 A.A.Kenel came to the town of Abakan. He was greatly interested in the folk music of the native population of Khakassiya. He traveled all over Khakassiya collecting Khakas folk songs. During his travels he collected about 600 different folk songs (about 1200 variants). Besides, he wrote several books and many articles about the musical traditions of the Khakas people. He also wrote an opera, which was based on the Khakas folklore. Besides, he worked as a teacher at the Regional State Musical school, which was founded in Abakan in 1960. The works of A.A. Kenel played an important part in the musical culture of Khakassiya.
Georgi Ivanovich Chelborakov is the most well-known composer of Khakassiya today.He was born in 1937, in the village of Karagai which is located in the northern part of the Tashtyp district. Georgi was fond of music when he was a schoolboy. He began to play the accordion when he was 13 or 14 years old. He got his elementary musical education at the Regional State Musical school in Abakan. Later on he studied music and musical composition at the Ural State conservatory in Sverdlovsk from 1972 till 1977. Georgi Ivanovich Chelborakov is a Member of the Union of Soviet Composers. He joined the Krasnoyarsk Branch of the Union in 1986. G.I. Chelborakov wrote over 150 songs. His songs are very popular in the Republic. You can often hear them on the radio and on TV. Some of the songs are sung both in Russian and in the Khakas language. ‘Chaskhy Puluttar’ (‘Spring Clouds’) is one of the most popular Chelborakov’s songs. People like this song for its beautiful melody. Besides, the composer wrote many other musical pieces. He wrote many songs for children too.
I live in the town of Sayanogorsk. The history of this town began in 1717, when Peter the First issued an order about building of a fortress near the Sayany mountains on the bank of the Yenisei river. He has indicated that place on the map. That’s why, it was called ‘Oznacheno’. On the 6th of November 1975 this settlement was renamed into Sayanogorsk. Today Sayanogorsk is a town of about 78000 inhabitants. It has 10 small districts. There are many 9-storyed buildings in the town, that’s why it has all features of a modern town. Sayanogorsk isn’t very big, but it plays an important role in the life of our Republic and our country as an industrial center. It’s known for its big Aluminium plant and for its Marble production. The Marble plant began to extract marble many years ago, our work is famous in the world. The workers of this plant extract marble of different colours. The Aluminium plant was built in 1976. Since that time it has grown. It cooperates with many foreign firms, such as Germany, Italy, France, Hungary, Finland, Japan, England and America. Not far from our town there is the largest in our country and the second in the world - Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station. It is a great construction. The dam is 240 meters high and 1400 meters long. High mountains surround our town. They are very beautiful all the year round. The highest peak of the Sayany mountains is the mount Karagosh. It’s about 3000 meters above sea level. The inhabitants of our town have the opportunity to visit the House of Culture, where they can see concerts, plays and spend free time. There are also some cinemas, party halls, cafes, restaurants and night dancing clubs in our town. As for children, they spend their time at the sport clubs and at the Center of Children’s Activity, where they study music, foreign languages, dancing, drawing and other things.
I’d like to introduce you to some kind of advertisment. Plenty of sunshine, lakes and fast-flowing rivers, the taiga rich in mushrooms, berries, nuts and furs, and the snow-capped mountains Sayany – all attract tourists and mountain climbers. Modern Khakasia is a united family of many nationalities. Visiting Khakassiya you are sure to see its capital Abakan, with a population of more than100 thousand people. It is an old town. The word ‘Aba’ has several meanings in the Khakas language; it can be translated into English as ‘father’, ‘old man’, bear’. ‘Kan’ – is a word, which in Siberia often means ‘river’. So, the word ‘Abakan’ may be explained as ‘Father River’, ‘Old River’, or ‘Bear River’. The town was founded in 1931 and got its name from the river on which it is situated. Many streets in Abakan were named after the famous revolutionaries and heroes of the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War. The main street bears the name of V.I. Lenin. It is the busiest street in the town. Now Abakan is an industrial and cultural center of Khakassiya. There are over 25 secondary schools, 2 universities, some colleges, several libraries and 2 theatres in the town. The most important sights of Abakan are the Museum of Regional Studies where you can learn about the Past and Present of the Khakasian people, the building of Drama theatre, the children’s theatre “Skaska” where an iron cock high up on the top calls the spectators for the beginning of the show, the Monument to Russian and Khakas souldiers on the hill in the Pobeda park and others. If you are on a short visit to Abakan you may stay in the town’s best hotel “Khakasia” which is situated at the corner of Lenin Avenue and Shchetinkin street. The Central Telegraph is just opposite the hotel. Perhaps you’d like to take home a souvenir from Abakan, the large Department stores and all shops of our hospitable town are at your service. Abakan is at the crossroads of tours to Shushenskoye and to the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydro station. In future Khakasia will become the tourists’ center with antiquities. Welcome to ancient Khakassiya and its capital Abakan!
Leader: Dear guests! You have just made a small excursion into our Wonderland – Khakassiya. And now you have the opportunity to ask the questions and tell us about your impressions. Please, You are welcome.
The guests’ questions and the hosts’ answers: How many schools are there in your town? – There are about 14 schools in our town.
How do you get from Sayanogorsk to Abakan? – We get from Sayanogorsk to Abakan by bus.
What is the approximate distance between Khakassiya and Moscow? – The approximate distance between Khakassiya and Moscow is more than 4000 kilometres (by railway (by train).
What is the approximate distance between Khakassiya and the geographical center of Asia? – The approximate distance between Khakasia and the geographical center of Asia is about 400 kilometres.
Who is the chairman of the Council of Ministers in the Republic of Khakassiya? – The chairman of the Council of Ministers in the Republic of Khakassiya is Aleksei Ivanovich Lebed.
Who is the head of your town administration? – The head of our town administration is Pyotr Prohorovich Ovchinnikov.
Do you like your town or not? – Oh, yes, of course, I like my town very much, because it’s beautiful and cosy. And when I’m away, I miss my home place.
Any more questions? No more? All right. Now please, your impressions, dear guests.
The impressions of foreign guests:
– Oh, it was wonderful! Fantastic! You live in such a beautiful place. We want to visit your Republic again. We like it very. Thank you very much.
Leader: Now we want to show you a short concert:
A national Khakasian folk dance.
A song ‘Chaskhy Puluttar’:
Когилбей тигир илбек чайылча,
Коглиг ырлапчам, чазызар сыгып.
Часхы пулутар танга саптырча,
чахаяхтарга колек тузирип. – 2 times
Peaceful are the steppes, endless is the sky, o’er my native land, clouds are passing by.
Spring is all around, all Taskhyls are blue, Oh, my native land, I’m in love with you - twice.
Teacher: Dear friends! Our lesson is completed now. Thank you a lot. Dear children, I think, we have achieved the aim and fulfilled all the tasks of the lesson today. I’m satisfied with all your makings and give a ‘very good’ and a ‘good’ mark to you. Thank you very much and good-bye.