Учебник – Т. Климентьева “Happy English –2”, Unit 4. Урок рассчитан на 2 часа
Познавательные – совершенствование и расширение знаний по теме “Американская история”, “город Вашингтон”, “Американские президенты” в виде ролевой игры в форме экскурсии с элементами театрализации, отработка фонетических навыков, навыков говорения, беглого чтения текста.
Развивающие – формирование умений применять приемы анализа, подбора материалов при составлении сообщения, переноса знаний в новую ситуацию (работа со стихотворением).
Воспитательные – воспитание общей культуры через знакомство с историей развития народа и историческими памятниками, воспитание культуры речи и плана ответа, воспитание интереса к изучаемому материалу, умение критически оценивать материал.
Оборудование урока – доска: название темы урока, список остановок во время экскурсии, стихотворение о соревновании, лексика к аудированию, карта Вашингтона, открытки и книги с видами Вашингтона, видеофильм о Вашингтоне, тексты стихотворения, контрольные тексты для чтения.
Teacher – Boys and girls, the theme of our lesson today is “Washington, D.C.” We studied the history of the capital of the USA at our English lessons. Our lesson will be in the form of the excursion through the central historical part of the town. Now we visit Washington, D.C. and see its historical sights. You make a trip to see Washington’s sights with the help of “Old Town Trolley” tours, water cruises, helicopter tours and by foot.
A visit to the capital city of the United States is nothing less than a grand lesson in history. In addition to the history, Washington, D.C. also has a unique beauty. George Washington, the first American president, played a major part in the city’s design. He insisted on creating an entirely new city for the capital. Its location on the Potomac River was chosen because of its central position between the northern states and the southern states. Besides his home in Mount Vernon was only 15 miles downriver from the area.
2. Warming- Up Activity
Teacher – Before our trip let’s repeat the names of the historical sights of Washington, D.C. our future stops during the excursion, and show them on the map. Repeat after me:
|Washington, D.C.||George Washington|
|The Capitol||Abraham Lincoln|
|The Library of Congress||Thomas Jefferson|
|The White House||Declaration of Independence|
|The Lincoln Memorial||Emancipation Declaration|
|The Jefferson Memorial|
|The Vietnam War Memorial|
Teacher – We have guests at our lesson today. I’ll ask the English language teachers to be our judges today. We’ll have some competitions and at the end of the lesson the teachers summarize our achievements. Before we begin I want you to read this poem:
For when the one Great Scorer comes
To write against your name,
He marks – not that you won or lost –
But how you played the game.
Grantland Rice “Alumnus Football”
So I wish you good luck. Let’s begin our excursion.
Activity 3. Speaking Practice
George Washington - Good morning, dear ladies and gentlemen!
My name is George Washington. Some people call me “the Father of the Country.” I was born on the 22 nd of February, 1732, in Westmorland county in Virginia.
I helped shape the beginning of the United States in three important ways. First, I was the Commander- in- chief of the Continental Army that won independence for 13 British colonies from Great Britain in the Revolutionary War. Secondly, in 1787, I served as president of the Constitutional Convention that wrote the United States Constitution. Lastly, I was the first elected president of the US. I served two terms of office and refused a third term; I died on December the 14 th, 1799, at Mount Vernon at the age of 67.
I chose site for the capital of the USA. After my death people called this town in my memory – Washington. And now I want to hear your stories about modern Washington, D.C.
Activity 4. Speaking Practice. An Excursion
Pupil 1 - HOW IT ALL BEGAN. By 1790, the newly formed United States already had eight temporary capitals. George Washington knew the country needed a permanent center of government. The site of the capital was chosen for its central location. President Washington selected Pierre Charles L’Enfant, a French soldier, engineer and architect, to draw up the plans for the new city. He laid out the city in the shape of a wheel with streets as spokes of the wheel and the Capitol in the center. His plans were grand with magnificent wide avenues. If a house, a store or even a tree stood in the way of a planned street, L’Enfant wanted it torn down. The first two major government buildings planned were the home of the President and a meeting place for Congress. Although several other official buildings joined the White House and Capitol during the early years, the city looked more like a country village than a great center of government. Only a few hundred wooden houses stood along the streets. The unpaved roads were dusty avenues in dry weather and lanes of mud in rainy weather. Corn grew on Pennsylvania Avenue. The city did not grow very fast. For the first ten years, only one police officer was needed for the whole city.
Pupil 2 - THE CAPITOL. Jenkins Hill was chosen as the site for the nation’s capitol building. The design featured two identical wings, one for the House of Representatives and one for the Senate, joined by a round, domed center room, called a rotunda. George Washington laid the corner stone for the Capitol with a silver trowel on September 18, 1793. The sculpture “Freedom” on the top of the Capitol dome was put in place in 1830. In 1959 the Capitol was enlarged again. Today the Capitol contains 540 rooms.
Pupil 3 - THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. The Library of Congress was established by an act of Congress in 1800. When the Library of Congress building opened its doors to the public on November the first, 1897, it was hailed as a glorious national monument and the largest, the coziest and the safest library building in the world.
Pupil 4 - SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION MUSEUMS. When you visit any of the Smithsonian’s 16 museums or the National Zoo, you are entering the world’s largest museum complex. The Institution, an important center for research, is dedicated to public education, national service and scholarship in the arts, science and history. The Smithsonian was established in 1846 with a gift of 500,000 dollars given to the American people by James Smithson, an English scientist, After his death, James Smithson’s body was brought to the United States and entombed in the “Castle” building on the Mall. Nine of the museums can be found on the Mall between the Capitol Building and the Washington Monument.
Activity 5. Completing the Rhyme
Teacher – Before we continue our excursion I want to tell you some words. When independence was won, the colonies came together, not as a nation, but as a confederation, or group of states. To prevent tyranny, there was no president and the central government had very little power. Each state has its own army. The states taxed each other’s goods. It was almost as if they were separate countries. The result was great confusion.
In spring1787, representatives from all the states met in Philadelphia to discuss the problems. They soon decided that the confederation could not work and that a new system of government was needed. For this purpose, they wrote the United States Constitution. The Constitution united the states into one country. For over two hundred years, it has provided the framework for American government.
The Constitution begins with the words “We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States.” And now complete the rhyme using information from the history of the USA.
In the beginning the states were not a __________
They were merely a ____________
Representatives met in _____________ to find a solution
And they wrote the _____________
Nation, confederation, Philadelphia, Constitution
Activity 6. Speaking Practice.
Pupil 5 - GEORGE WASHINGTON. “First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of the countrymen”
In 1753 Washington was an officer in the army, and two years later he was named Commander-in-Chief of the Virginia militia in 1758. Soon after the outbreak of hostilities with the British in 1775, he was made Commander in Chief of the entire Continental army in the Revolutionary War. Not until 1787 did Washington fully emerge to preside over the Constitution of the United States was adopted. And on the thirtieth of April 1789, standing in his height of glory on the balcony of Federal Hall in New York City, the nation’s first capital, George Washington took the presidential oath of office. In short order, the Bill of Rights was approved by Congress.
Teacher – Do you know that …
- George Washington was one of the richest Presidents.
- His famous false teeth were made of hippopotamus teeth.
- He was the first president to appear on a postage stamp.
- His favorite vegetable was onion.
- His favorite sports were horseback riding and fishing.
Pupil 6 - THE WHITE HOUSE. The oldest public building in Washington, D.C., is also the most famous residence in America. The cornerstone of the “President’s House” as it was originally named was set in place in 1792.George Washington never lived in the White House, serving his two terms as the first president in Philadelphia, while the White House and the Capitol were under construction. The White House has been the home of all American presidents since November 1800 when George Washington’s successor, John Adams moved in it with a prayer “May none but honest and wise men ever rule under this roof.” A significant change in recent years was President Bill Clinton’s 1995 decision – for security reasons – to turn Pennsylvania Avenue into a walking Mall in front of the White House. The White House has 132 rooms and 20 bathrooms.
Pupil 7 - THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT. The Confederation Congress decided to erect a monument to George Washington in 1783. But the monument remained an idea until Independence Day 1848 and it was finished finally in 1884. Three years later the Washington Monument was opened to public, but the elevator was for men only, considering too dangerous for women who were invited to hike the 898 steps to the top. The Washington Monument rises 555 feet and is surrounded by 50 American flags. It is the tallest point in Washington, D.C. Some people call the monument “Pencil” due to the form.
Pupil 8 - ABRAHAM LINCOLN. Abraham Lincoln was born on February the twelfth, 1809. Every child knows the stories there is simply no end to Lincoln lore – the one-room Kentucky log-cabin he was born in … the nickname “Honest Abe”… the way he changed for all time the course of human history. He practiced law. In 1847 Lincoln began a term in the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1856 he joined the new Republican Party. On April 12, 1861, the Civil War burst into being. In 1863 Lincoln issued his great Emancipation Proclamation declaring slavery unlawful in the rebelling states. Five nights later a bullet fired by the proslavery actor John Wilkes Booth deflected the president from “ the high road of life.”
Teacher – Here are some interesting facts from Lincoln’s biography. Do you know that …
- His favorite sports were wrestling and weightlifting.
- He was the only President to patent an invitation.
- He was the first President to wear a beard and did so at the request of an 11-year-old girl.
- He was the first President depicted on a coin.
- He loved home baked pies, especially those mailed to him by the woman of his hometown.
- His famous quotation is “ It is true that you may fool all the people some of the time, you can even fool some of the people all the time, but you can’t fool all the people all the time.”
Pupil 9 - LINCOLN MEMORIAL. The magnificent memorial building is constructed of white Colorado Yule marble along the classical lines of the great Parthenon in Athens. A magnificent 19-feet marble statue by Daniel Chester French of a pensive but resolute Lincoln seated in a chair, dominates the inner space of the memorial. Below the memorial lines a rectangular pool of water, the Reflecting Pool. Inscribed in stone on an inner wall facing Lincoln’s statue is his Gettysburg Address from 1863. In 1963 Martin Luther King spoke here his famous “I Have a Dream.”
Pupil 10 - VIETNAM VETERANS MEMORIAL. The Vietnam War was the longest in the U.S. history, it lasted 16 years. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated in 1982. Its black granite walls contain the names of over 58,000 men and women who lost their lives or who are missing or unaccounted for in the war. The names are listed in chronological order. The concept of the designer was that “the names would be the memorial”, no other words are used here. Also symbolic is the “V’ shape, with one wall pointing toward the Lincoln Memorial and the other toward the Washington Monument.
Teacher – In May 1775, representatives of the thirteen colonies met in Philadelphia to decide whether to remain with Britain or fight for independence. Fighting had already begun, but many people still hoped for peace with Britain. Finally, more than a year later, on July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was unanimously approved. The Declaration says that independence is a basic human right:
“We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness…” These words from the Declaration of Independence were written by one of the brightest men of America, the third President of the USA, Thomas Jefferson.
Pupil 11 - JEFFERSON MEMORIAL. The last great monument to be erected on the Mall is a fitting tribute to a man who was an architect and a powerful statesman. Located at the east end of the Tidal Basin is the large domed memorial dedicated to U.S. third president – Thomas Jefferson. The nineteen foot bronze statue faces north toward the White House where Jefferson served as Secretary of State under George Washington, Vice-President under Adams and became President in 1801. Engraved on the interior walls is the Declaration of Independence, of which he was the author.
Activity 7. Reading practice. Учащимся раздаются 5 текстов для работы в группах
Teacher – Now you must skin through the texts, answer the questions to the text and decide which sentences are true and which ones are false. You must answer to our guests.
Abraham Lincoln was the sixteenth president of the United States. He was born in Kentucky in 1809. His family was very poor. When Lincoln was a boy, he worked on his family’s farm. He did not go to school. He taught himself to read and write. Later, Lincoln studied law and became a lawyer. After that, he became a politician.
Everybody liked Abraham Lincoln because he was intelligent and hardworking. Lincoln was very ambitious. He wanted to be good at everything he did. He said that he wanted to win the “ race of life.” He was also kind and honest. People called him “Honest Abe.”
Lincoln became president in 1860. In 1861, there was a war between the North and the South of the United States. The people in the South wanted a separate government from the United States. The North wanted the United States to stay together as one country. Lincoln was the leader of the North. In the war, brother killed brother. The Civil War was four years long.
The North won the Civil War. The war ended on April 9, 1865. Six days later, President Lincoln and his wife went to the theater. Inside the theater, a man went behind the president and shot him in the head. The man’s name was John Wilkes Booth. He was a supporter of the South. Lincoln died the next morning.
1. Answer the questions.
- Why did everybody like Abraham Lincoln?
- When did Lincoln become president?
- Who won the Civil War?
2. Say whether the sentences are true or false.
- Lincoln was born in 1860.
- People called Lincoln “Honest Abe.”
- The war started in 1860.
- Lincoln was the leader of the North.
- The war ended in 1865.
- The Civil War was six years old.
- Abraham Lincoln died in the war.
- John Wilkes Booth killed Lincoln.
Washington, D.C. is the capital of the United States. It is an unusual city. It is a city that has no state. It is a district – the District of Columbia or D.C. That is why we say Washington, D.C.
George Washington became the first president of the United States in 1790. At that time the new United States had no capital city. It was necessary to have a capital city that was not a part of a state. Washington picked a place for the capital near his home, Mount Vernon. The state of Maryland gave some land and Virginia gave some land. This made the district of Columbia. The name of the capital is after George Washington.
The city of Washington, D.C. has wide streets, parks, and beautiful buildings. These buildings tell the history of the United States. The most famous building is the White House. This is the home of the president. Another important building is the Capitol. This is where Congress meets to make the laws of the country.
Washington, D.C. is very special in the spring. It is cherry blossom time. Japan sent more than 3,000 cherry trees to the United States in 1912. The trees have beautiful flowers in March or April. It is a very pretty time to see Washington, D.C.
Millions of people visit Washington, D.C. Tourism is an important business. The other business is government. Every year the president sees the leaders of many countries in Washington, D.C.
1. Answer the questions.
- Why the capital of the USA is called Washington, D.C.?
- Can you name any famous building in this city?
- What is an important business in Washington?
2. Say whether these sentences are true or false.
- Mount Vernon was George Washington’s home.
- Virginia was not a state.
- The Capitol is another name for the White House.
- Congress meets in the White House.
- Japan sent cherry trees to the United States
The Pentagon is a building in Arlington, Virginia, near Washington, D.C. It has the offices of the U.S. Department of Defense. The Department of Defense includes the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, and Coast Guard.
The word pentagon comes from the Greek penta, which means “five”. A pentagon is a figure with five sides. The Pentagon has five rings. The rings are inside each other. Each ring has five sides. Each ring is five stories tall.
The Pentagon is the largest office building in the world. It has seventeen miles of halls. People can get lost in the Pentagon. So the walls on each floor are a different color (brown, green, red, gray, and blue). This helps people to know where they are. There are also many maps in the halls!
The Pentagon is so big that it is like a city. Almost 30,000 people work there. The Pentagon has its own doctors, dentists, and nurses. It has its own banks and stores. It has a post office, a fire department, and a police department. It also has an important center for communications. This center guards the country. It is hundreds of feet under the ground. The Pentagon even has its own radio and TV stations.
1. Answer the questions
- How many sides does the Pentagon have?
- Who works in the building?
- Why are the walls on each floor a different color?
2. Say whether these sentences are true or false.
- The Pentagon is in Washington, D.C.
- The Greek word penta means “five.”
- The Pentagon has seventy miles of halls.
- The colors of the floors are red, blue, green, white and gray.
- The Pentagon has its own police department.
THE WHITE HOUSE
In Washington, D.C., 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue is a very special address. It is the address of the White House, the home of the president of the United States.
Originally the White House was gray and was called the Presidential Palace. It was built from 1792 to 1800. At this time, the city of Washington itself was being built. It was to be the nation’s new capital city. George Washington, the first president, and Pierre Charles L’Enfant, a French engineer, chose the place for the new city. L’Enfant then planned the city. The president’s home was an important part of the plan.
A contest was held to pick a design for the president’s home. An architect named James Hoban won. He designed a large three- story house of gray stone.
President Washington never lived in the Presidential Palace. The first president to live there was John Adams, the second president of the United States, and his wife. Mrs. Adams did not really like her new house. In her letters, she often complained about the cold. Fifty fireplaces were not enough to keep the house warm.
In 1812 the United States and Britain went to war. In 1814 the British invaded Washington. They burned many buildings, including the Presidential Palace.
After the war James Hoban, the original architect, partially rebuilt the president’s home. To cover the marks of the fire, the building was painted white. Before long it became known as the White House.
The White House is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the United States. Every year more than 1.5 million visitors go through five rooms that are open to the public.
1. . Answer the questions.
- Who lives in the White House?
- Why was the White House built in Washington?
- Why did the original home of the president need to be rebuilt?
2. Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. ________ is 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue.
a. The address of Washington, D.C.
b. The address of the White House.
c. The original name of the White House.
2. The Presidential Palace was __________.
a. painted white
b. made of gray stone
c. made of white stone
3. The first President to live in the Presidential Palace was _________
a. George Washington
b. Mrs. Adams
c. John Adams
In 1775, when the American War of Independence began, George Washington was chosen to lead the American Army. Washington knew his job would be difficult. The army was small. The soldiers were untrained and had few guns. The British army was large and strong. Its soldiers were very well trained.
Early battles showed Washington’s problems. His army was easily defeated in the Battle of New York. Then Washington thought of a plan. On Christmas night in 1776, he had his soldiers attack the enemy in the city of Trenton, New Jersey. The enemy soldiers never expected an attack in such a night. They were having a Christmas party. Washington won his first victory. Washington’s army won the final battle in Yorktown in 1781.
George Washington was a great leader and was respected by all his men. He was not interested in fame or money, but only in helping his country. There are many stories about George Washington. Many are probably not true. The most famous story, though, is about the cherry tree. It is said that young George cut down his father’s cherry tree. When his father asked who cut down the tree, George confessed and said, “I cannot tell a lie.”
In 1789 leaders from all the states met to choose the first president of the United States. The vote was unanimous. Everyone voted for George Washington. He became the country’s first president, and is remembered as the “Father of our Country.”
1. Answer the questions.
- What was George Washington’s job during the War of Independence?
- Why did people respect George Washington?
- What happened to George Washington in 1789?
2. Say whether the sentences are true or false.
- George Washington was made president in 1775.
- The British army was bigger than the American army.
- The British soldiers were better trained than the American soldiers.
- The Americans won all their battles.
- The American soldiers had a party at Christmas in Trenton.
- George Washington was not interested in fame or money.
- George Washington was the first president of the United States.
Activity 8. Checking the knowledge.
Teacher – Now we’ll check our knowledge in the history of the USA and the sights of Washington, D.C. We’ll work in two teams and in some time we’ll see who is the best.
Listen to the text and retell it in Russian.
Once a little boy in America wanted 100 dollars very badly and decided to pray for it. He prayed for several weeks with no result, so he wrote a letter to God. The post office finally decided to send the letter to the White House and it was shown to President Roosevelt, who laughed and ordered 5 dollars sent to the boy. The boy was delighted that his earnest prayers had been answered, in part at least, so he wrote a thank-you to God, but added this P.S.
“I noticed you sent this letter through Washington, and as usual those bureaucrats deducted 95%.”
* * *
Two farmers, who for the first time came on some business to Washington, D.C. were started by the stream of police sirens and the roar of eight motorcycles preceding a long black car. Impressed by the number of police, one of them called his companion who was in the car.
“Why,” said the second, “don’t you know? It’s the President of the United States.”
“Oh,” said the first. “And what has he done?”
Now answer the questions.
- Where did the first European people to settle North America come from? (from Britain)
- What was the number of the first English colonies in America? - 13
- What written document set up the basic government of the United States? – Constitution
- Who was one of the main authors of the Declaration of Independence and then the 3rd President? – Thomas Jefferson
- Do you want to live in Washington, D.C.? Why or why not?
- Who was the first President of the USA? When did he become the President of the USA? – George Washington, 1789
- Which is the United States capital? – Washington, D.C.
- Who was the president that ended slavery? – Abraham Lincoln
- Who was the president of the USA when “Emancipation Proclamation” was adopted and the slaves were free? – Abraham Lincoln
- Where does the President of the USA live and work? – In the White House
- What state does the capital of the USA Washington, D.C. belong to? – None
- What is the main industry of Washington, D.C.? – Government
- What monument in Washington, D.C. is nicknamed “Pencil”? – The Washington Monument
- What is the name of the famous collection of museums in Washington, D.C.? – The Smithsonian Museums
- Which American document begins with the words, “We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union…”? – The Constitution
- Name the largest and the most famous library of the USA? – The Library of Congress
- What is the name given to the official residence of the President of the USA in Washington, D.C.? – The White House
- On what river is the capital of the USA situated? – The Potomac River
- When is the Day of national independence in the USA? – July, 4th
- Where and when was the present Constitution proclaimed? – Philadelphia, 1787
- How did Abraham Lincoln turn a political war into a moral one? – He issued the Emancipation Proclamation
- Who is the Head of the State and Government in the USA? – The President
- What are the two parts of the Congress? – The Senate and the House of Representatives
- Who is considered to be “the Father of the Country?” – George Washington
- What doe “D.C.” stand for? – District of Columbia
- What building has the most famous address? – The White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue
- In what building are the laws made? – In the Capitol
Activity 9. Game
Teacher – In five minutes’ time how many words can you make from the word Washington. The person with the longest list reads her or his words. When the person reads a word you wrote, draw a line through it. The person with the most words that no one else has is the winner.
Rounding – Off.
Departure of George Washington who thanks for the lesson.
Summary of the lesson.
I see that all of you are now experts in Washington, D.C. Our lesson is over.
Подведение итогов жюри. Награждение победителей открытками с видами Вашингтона и памятными открытками Star of the Week.