Проектирование ситуативных заданий, направленных на формирование дискурсивной компетенции учащихся

Разделы: Иностранные языки

Следует сказать, что дискурсивная компетенция начинает приобретать особо важную значимость в современном процессе обучения иностранным языкам и находится в центре рассмотрения зарубежных и отечественных педагогов.

Дискурсивная компетенция представлена в работах ученых (Р.П. Мильруда, Ян ван Эка, А.В. Кащеевой, Н.В. Елухиной и др.) в качестве составляющей коммуникативной компетенции, достижение которой является одной из главных целей обучения иностранным языкам в современной школе. Анализ педагогико-методической литературы по данной проблематике позволил выявить достаточно малое количество исследований такого характера.

Наблюдение за практикой работы педагогов в школе и организацией ими учебного взаимодействия с учащимися показывают, что процесс формирования дискурсивной компетенции школьников не отличается необходимой глубиной, гибкостью и целенаправленностью.

Под дискурсивной компетенцией понимается знание различных типов дискурса и правил их построения, а также умение их применять в различных конкретных ситуациях.

В данной статье предлагаются задания, направленные на формирование дискурсивной компетенции учащихся, которые можно использовать при обучении английскому языку. Данные задания, как показывает практика, вызывают большой интерес у учащихся, способствуют повышению мотивации и формированию дискурсивной компетенции.

Задание 1 “Увеличение ролей”

Task: two participants decide to have a picnic. A third participant arrives and informs them that they are on private property, then a forth join in, and so on. The teacher or one of the learners cues participants on when to join the role play.

Задание 2 “Незаконченный сценарий”

Phrase 1: A boy invites a girl out. She may refuse or accept.

Phrase 2: If the girl accepts, they go out together (e.g. to cinema, disco, restaurant) where they meet a boy who seems to be the girl’s boyfriend. A conversation is developed. If the girl refuses, the boy asks another girl who accepts. They go out together where they meet the first girl with another boy. A dialogue is developed between the four participants.

Задание 3 “Спонтанная ролевая игра”

Совершенно предсказуемый тип ролевой игры может быть преобразован, если использовать элемент неожиданности, сюрприза в задании для участников игры.

Например, одному учащемуся сказали, что его семья заказала комнату в отеле, где они должны были остановиться во время их путешествия. Но он не знал, что отель не получил этот заказ, а на данный момент свободных комнат нет.

Двое учащихся (турист и служащий отеля) получили каждый свою карточку с заданием.

Card 1: You are traveling with your family (parents, brother, sister) through (country). It is 10.30 p.m. on July 12 and you are all very tired. You have just arrived at a hotel in (place) to which you had written and booked two double rooms (one with toilet and shower) for three nights (12-15 July). As you speak (target language) you go to see the receptionist while the others unload the luggage.

Card 2: You are a receptionist in a hotel in (place). The hotel is fully booked for the next fortnight as are all the hotels in the vicinity. You have one small room which has been booked by a lady who has not arrived but who did say that she might be late. It is 10.30 p.m., you are tired and hungry and will be glad to go off duty in another ten minutes. A young tourist approaches you.

Задание 4 “Дебаты”


  1. Выбрали спорный вопрос.
  2. Учащиеся приготовили аргументы “За” и “Против”.
  3. Подумали о том, что могут ответить “соперники” на эти аргументы.
  4. Выбрали подходящее время для того или иного аргумента.

Несмотря на то, что этот вид задания тщательно готовился учащимися дома, он имел элемент неожиданности, так как нельзя было предугадать, что именно будет говорить другая команда, какие аргументы будут приводить, чтобы опровергнуть или, наоборот, доказать что-то.


  1. State your opinion.
  2. Give proofs or reasons (These should be facts, perhaps a direct quote)
  3. State opposing opinion. Give proofs and reasons.
  4. Rebuttal (showing how your opponent’s arguments are wrong)
  5. Concede a point and answer your opponent.
  6. End debate by evaluation of facts and summary of arguments.

Задание 5 “Дилемма”

Task: You’re going to play a game where you have to predict how one of your classmates would behave in a given situation. Your teacher will give you three cards similar to this one.

Situation: You are a taxi driver. You find a bag in your cab with ?5,000 in it. The name of the owner is on the bag, but not the address. What would you do?

Read your cards and choose one of them. Then choose someone in the room (but don’t say who yet). Write down on a piece of paper how you think he or she would react in that situation. When it is your turn, ask your question to the person you choose. He or she must say how he/she would react. If your prediction is right, you score a point! If you don’t agree, or think they lying, you can challenge them! The secret is to match a person and a situation, and then it is a question of how well you know your classmates. Be prepared for some surprises!

Задание 6 “Ролевая игра: Свидетельские показания”

Role 1: Policeman. You’ve been urgently called to the scene of a road accident. The police report says it involved two cars and two women were injured and needed medical help. Ask questions to the injured witnesses – a saleswoman and her client. They remember much, but can’t explain every detail because of the nervous stress.

Make the sequence of the events clear to you so that you can report it to your chief. Try to find who was guilty.

You should know more about time, place (road, pavement, T-junction, crossroads), drivers (sex, age, drunk or not, driving speed, type of the car, driving rules), the last thing seen, injury (how serious, if it could be avoided).

Useful phrases:

-I’m sorry, but could you explain what you mean by…?

-What are you trying to say?

-Can I interrupt you for a moment?

-Is it possible, that…?

Remember to use short turns while listening and markers.

Role 2: Saleswoman. In the afternoon you were selling (packing) fish and chips to a young woman when a car turned off the road all of a sudden and crashed into a car parked at the pavement close to your stand. The parked car moved to the pavement and brought down a neighbouring sausage stand and your stand as well. The boiling oil split and burnt your arms and you could hardly save yourself from being run over. Nevertheless, you don’t want to go to hospital. You couldn’t move away as the two cars stuck together continued to run rather fast. You noticed an elderly woman driving one of the cars and another man rushing to his car. You

Tell the policeman about every detail you saw, though you are not sure. You asked them to call the ambulance. Sometimes you feel it difficult to formulate briefly and correctly what you want to say. The policeman might help you to find the right words. Support another witness if she tells the facts you are sure of.

Useful phrases:

-That’s absolutely true!

-I take your point.

-All I’m trying to say is that…

-It seems to me as if she/he’s…

-It’s very probable that…

Role 3: A young woman (client). It was about lunchtime when you were walking along the pavement, felt hungry and decided to buy fish and chips at the nearby stand. You had put the change into your wallet and stretched your hand to take the pack when you heard the sounds of the brakes and broken glass. You saw a car driving at average speed that turned off the road and crashed into a red Volkswagen parked close to the sausage stand and fish-and-chips stand. The stands went down in practically no time so the saleswoman burnt her arms and the chips were scattered about. She was busy with the packing and the money so she didn’t manage to jump aside, but you did. You noticed an elderly woman driving the car, a smart-looking owner of the Volkswagen and a spitting cat looking wild when it jumped out of the car. The woman was shaking her hand. You were so frightened that fainted and hit yourself when falling to the pavement, but you remember the accident clearly.

Tell the policeman about every detail you saw and support another witness if you agree with her (use both short and full turns). You’re quite talkative and worried. You also might suggest catching the cat and compensating for the saleswoman.

Useful phrases:

-It’s quite probable that…

-Wouldn’t it be a good idea to…?

-It’s almost certain that…

-In my opinion…

Задание 7 “Обсуждение личных интересов”


  1. Tick the statements that interest you.
  2. In pairs, compare your lists of topics. Find out what interests your partner.
  3. Individually, re-read the statements on the topics that interest you and underline those you agree with. Discuss your opinions with other people in the class.

Medical drugs frequently do more harm than good.

Religion has had a greater effect on world history than politics.

Husbands should share all domestic duties with their wives.

The killing of seals and whales should be prohibited.

Aid to developing countries should only be given for specific welfare and industrial project.

The novel is dead.

The only way the world will achieve peace is if all countries disarm unilaterally.

Bloodsports should be made illegal.

 One day computers will rule the world.

 The United Nation serves no useful purpose.

 The family unit is the basis of society.

 Seeing a good play is far more satisfying than seeing a good film.

 All new towns should be planned as a single whole.

 Karl Marx was a great man.

 Everyone should compete in at least one sport.

 Despite the changes in recent years, women are still suppressed politically and denied the best jobs.

 At school we really only need to learn the basics of reading, writing and mathematics.

Today’s culture is pop music.

 Capitalism brings the greatest prosperity.

 When space is explored further the world will be a safer place.

 We all need to love and be loved.

 The media generally has far too much power.

  Science offers mankind a wonderful future.

  There are no such things as ghosts.

  Coal is the most valuable mineral in the 21st century.

  Advertisers try and persuade you to buy what you don’t want.

  All countries need a strong police force.

  Universities have a great responsibility.

Используемая литература

  1. Brumfit C. Communicative Methodology in Language Teaching. The roles of fluency and accuracy. Cambridge University Press. 1992.
  2. Gower R. Speaking. Upper-Intermediate. Oxford University press. 1993.
  3. Sheils J. Communication in the modern language classroom. Council of Europe press. 1983.