- to practise and activate all essential vocabulary on the topic “Healthy Way of Life”;
- to provide an opportunity to use linguistic skills in real situations of communication;
- to broaden students’ understanding of the various aspects of healthy way of life;
- to teach to work collaboratively in group, to develop partnership relations between teachers and pupils;
- to stimulate and enhance the students’ interest of health problems (Food, Bad habits, Stress) to probe further on their own and to reach their own conclusions based on examining the evidence;
- to teach students critical thinking skills when searching for information in the Internet, additional literature;
- to develop cross-cultural and cross-curricular competence .
Type of the project:
- cross-curricular; group; short-term; with coordination.
Result of the project:
- presentation of creative and research work.
- computer and multimedia projector; tape recorder; self-made posters; illustrations; handouts.
The course of the lesson
I. (teachers) Good afternoon, dear students! Today we are having our final lesson on the topic “Healthy Way of Life”. For three weeks you have been working on the projects. Today you are going to present the result of your joint work. We hope that you will show your speaking skills, cooperative skills, will show your understanding of the proverb ‘Health is above wealth’.
As you remember, at our first lesson of this theme we held a survey among the 11th formers. The children chose the most vital aspects of healthy way of life and picked out the problems concerning their health. Having analyzed their opinion, we found out the following three major points: bad habits, food and stress. As far as we have three groups in our class, each group chose a problem for studying.
Before discussing these problems let’s look around. We see some quotations and sayings on the topic. Let’s read them. (the pupils read and comment on the quotations)
Possible Sayings and Proverbs:
- Tomorrow is another day
- A change is as good as a rest
- A sound mind in a sound body
- An apple a day keeps the doctor away
We hope your today’s presentations will prove they are true.
2.1. Can you imagine our life without food? I think no. What is food for us? (the pupils give their variants)
2.2. Do you know the secrets of health and beauty? The secrets are in our food. The proverb says: “We are what we eat ” In this cosmic world which we live in, the thing we neglect all to off is nutrition. Food supplies three fundamental body needs: need for energy, need for new tissue growth and tissue repair, need to regulate metabolic function.
In particular, the types of food that we eat can influence our moods. Eating food like bread, cereal, rice makes us feel calm. Chocolate can lift our spirits and make us feel happier. Other foods, such as coffee, eggs, sugar, can have a negative effect on us. When you feel stressed, try a little bread and a glass of milk and you will feel relaxed.
Have you ever heard anything about junk food? I shall try to convince you that it is harmful for our health and stomach. In today’s fast-moving world, people have less and less time to spend eating, let alone cooking. It is probably for this reason that junk food is so popular.
Recent researches have shown that people who prefer junk food gain excess weight. This is true because you tend to eat more, as junk food is less satisfying and lower in vital nutrients.
I don’t think that you will never eat hamburgers or fried potatoes. I’m sure you will! But always remember about the consequences.
2.3. The problem of food is closely connected with dieting. We all want to be slim. We’ve got some information about dieting: whether it is a good thing or not.
The term dieting most often refers to the revision of food intake in order to lose weight. Diets are also observed for a wide range of medical reasons.
What do 100 calories a day correspond to? It’s easy to feed 100 calories to the body but difficult to burn them, as the drawings illustrate.
Variants of burning calories are:
1) 2 km walk;
2) 5 min of skiing at competition speed;
3) 4 km of cycling;
4) 15 min of tennis (easy pace);
5) 30 min of gardening.
You should count your calories if you want to have a good figure.
There are a number of problems connected with dieting. Low diets, for example, restrict the amount of bread, sugar, and grains while maintaining a normal amount of proteins and fats. Most people experience low blood pressure after only a few days on such diets.
Diets high in fats are harmful for people with heart disease.
High proteins diets can be kept for only a short period of time and are dangerous for anyone with diabetes and other medical problems.
There is a serious problem of starvation, because it can lead to coma. It can be practiced only under strict medical supervision.
2.4. Now we’d like to acquaint you with such a disease as anorexia.
Anorexia is a new illness and seems to be caused by the society we live in, which judges us on our appearance. The media encourage us to try to be slim and beautiful. Each year there are to be at least 2000 new cases of anorexia. Most anorexics are females in their teens and twenties who suffer from a distorted self image: either slim or attractive they may appear to others. Though hungry, anorexics attempt to gain control of their lives by denying eating.
2.5. We are sure you know such term as vegetarianism. We’ll tell you the history of it and reveal the advantages and disadvantages of it.
Vegetarianism is an ancient custom. During the 19th century the movement began to produce results even among non-vegetarians. By the early 20th century it was non-vegetarian's diet - especially in English-speaking countries; such foods as peanut butter and corn flakes were invented by vegetarians in the United States.
The vegetarian movement as a whole was carried forward by individuals, such as Leo Tolstoy and George Bernard Show, and by certain religious sects.
Humanitarian vegetarians refuse meat because they believe that killing of animals is unnecessary or cruel. People who are keen on vegetarianism for health reasons believe that meat is harmful to the human body and that vegetable diet is more effective.
Purist vegetarians reject all foods that are derived from animals, including dairy products such as eggs, milk, cheese and butter.
2.6. Competition 1: You’ve got a lot of information about food: junk food, healthy food, dieting. Now we’ll check how well you remember it. We’ll see which of the two groups can choose healthy food and junk food from the pictures on the table. (comments of the expert)
Competition 2: Now I offer you a list of different ingredients. Imagine that you are waiting for a friend; you are to prepare meal as quickly as possible. I shall give you a minute… Now we shall see whose dish is the tastiest and healthiest. (comments of the expert)
2.7. I hope you will follow our advice and choose healthy food. I wish you good meal! And we present you with some general advice on healthy food.
General Advice on Healthy Food
1. Eat less salt, sugar and saturated fat.
2. Eat more raw fruit and vegetables, wholemeal bread and other foods rich in fibre.
3. Check the 'Contents' labels on packets and tins to see what they actually contain.
4. If you want to lose weight, do it gradually. People who lose weight quickly usually put it back on quickly, too.
5. Eat regularly - your body needs a steady flow of energy.
6. Drink five or six glasses of water per day.
7. Get plenty of variety in your diet.
8. Enjoy your food!
III. Bad Habits.
3.1. Another problem is bad habits. Can you name any bad habits (smoking, drinking, overeating, gambling, irritation, drug-taking).
We confess the significance of all these problems but smoking. Many teenagers do not consider it to be a serious problem leading to terrible consequences. That’s why we have decided smoking to be discussed.
3.2. If you smoke and you still don't believe that there's a definite link between smoking and bronchial troubles, heart disease and lung cancer, then you are certainly deceiving yourself. No one will accuse you of hypocrisy. Let us just say that you are suffering from a bad case of wishful thinking. This needn't make you too uncomfortable because you are in good company. Whenever the subject of smoking and health is raised, the governments of most countries hear no evil, see no evil and smell no evil. Admittedly, a few governments have taken timid measures. In Britain, for instance, cigarette advertising has been banned on television. The conscience of the nation is appeased, while the population continues to puff its way to smoky, cancerous death.
You don't have to look very far to find out why the official reactions to medical findings have been so lukewarm. The answer is simply money. Tobacco is a wonderful commodity to tax.
If the governments of the world were honestly concerned about the welfare of their peoples, you'd think they'd conduct aggressive anti-smoking campaigns. Far from it! The tobacco industry is allowed to spend staggering sums on advertising. Its advertising is as insidious as it is dishonest. We are never shown pictures of real smokers coughing up their lungs early in the morning. That would never do. The advertisements always depict virile, clean-shaven young men. They suggest it is manly to smoke, even positively healthy! Smoking is associated with the great open-air life, with beautiful girls, true love and togetherness. What utter nonsense!
For a start, governments could begin by banning all cigarette and tobacco advertising and men should conduct anti-smoking advertising campaigns of their own. Smoking should be banned in all public places like theatres, cinemas and restaurants. Great efforts should be made to inform young people especially of the dire consequences of taking up the habit. A horrific warning - say, a picture of a death's head - should be included in every packet of cigarettes that is sold. As individuals we are certainly weak, but if governments acted honestly and courageously, they could protect us from ourselves.
3.3. There are many smokers who are aware of the health hazards of their habit and want to stop, or have already tried, without success. Here is some practical advice which may help you to kick the habit:
You can rely on your own will-power. Simply smoke your last cigarette and do not allow yourself to pick up another. However, very few of us are strong-willed enough to do this successfully. Or you can gradually cut down on the amount you smoke each day until you stop entirely. Additionally, some companies manufacture products such as chewing gum and adhesive body patches which administer small doses of nicotine to help combat withdrawal symptoms. You can use these products if your will-power requires some assistance. Otherwise, you can benefit from other available treatments like hypnotherapy or acupuncture. Many people claim that after only a few sessions of alternative therapies such as these, they have been permanently cured of their addiction. The only drawback, however, is that their effectiveness seems to depend on your desire to give up swiping. The stronger your will-power is, the more successful the treatment will be. When you have stopped smoking, you should try not to begin again. You should avoid stressful situations, since stress often drives people to smoke again. Also, when boredom strikes it is often tempting to pick up a cigarette, if only for something to do. You can prevent the boredom which may lead to your taking up smoking again. To conclude, there are several ways to give up smoking, some of which are less conventional than others. Once you have given up, you may also have to take certain measures to ensure that you remain a non-smoker for good.
3.4. In conclusion we’d like to present you with one of such posters to remind you how dangerous smoking is not to the health of a smoker but to the environment as well.
4.1. We are school-leavers. It’s a crucial moment of our life. We realize our responsibility. That’s why we get nervous as we are under constant stress. We should know how to cope with these problems and how to overcome them. Here is our project “Anti-Stress Recipes”.
4.2. Do you know what the signs of stress are?
1) “7 o’clock! Why should I get up so early?!” - If you ask yourself this question at least once a week, you are irritated.
2) “9 o’clock! A test! Again!” - You worry almost every day, don’t you?
3) “1 o’clock! I can’t understand anything!” - You feel sick and tired and can’t concentrate on the lesson.
4) “4 o’clock! I want to sleep!” - You are gloomy – you have no time to rest, you have so much to do.
5) “8 o’clock! Leave me alone!” - You are tense and you don’t want to do anything.
Don’t any of these thoughts strike you sometimes? (comments of the pupils).If ‘yes’ – you are on the way to stress.
Stress is a worried or nervous feeling that stops you relaxing caused, for example, by pressure at school or personal problems. When you are under stress, you see life in grey and black colours.
4.3. Let’s test ourselves in what colour's we see life, what our outlook on life is. (test ‘What’s your outlook on life’, comments on the results)
4.4. The mind and the body are not separate. When you relax your body you can relax your mind. A technique of relaxation can help you when you are under stress or just tired.
Relaxation Pause (is performed to music):
Sit comfortably. Close your eyes. Listen to your breathing.
Feel its rhythm and depth. Feel yourself breathe-in and breathe-out.
Remember the most pleasant moment of your life. …Try to fix this feeling. …
Thank you. Open your eyes.
A quarter of an hour of relaxation like that every day will pay you well! You will gain extra energy and good will towards life generally.
Now we are calm and quiet, relaxed and at ease. We are ready to accept new information; we hope it will be of great use for everybody.
4.5. People have had problems since the beginning of time. We’ve already read some proverbs that are probably thousands of years old. We are sure most of them are useful today.
Our modern life is really stressful. We compete at school and in sport and even with our friends. We try to get as good marks as possible, to buy as cool telephone as possible, to look as smart as possible, to go on holiday as far as possible so that we can relax after getting so tense and tired!
All this can’t but influence our nerves. What do you think the signs of stress are? (comments of the pupils: irritability, fussiness, gloominess, suspicion, indecision, excitability, restlessness, lack of concentration, unsociability, loss of appetite, over-eating, sleeplessness, drinking, smoking, worrying, tension.)
Many people try to get rid of the signs of stress instead of the cause. They may take sleeping pills or try to control the various signs in other ways. But the only satisfactory way of stopping stress is to find the cause of it.
4.6. Presentation ‘Causes of Stress’.
1) - The loss of a close person or any other loss may cause stress. It may be the death or illness of a friend, the loss of your job or money. And you can probably do nothing to change these.
- As the proverb says ‘One cannot put the clock back’. You should concentrate on what is happening in you life today. And go on living. Don’t try to re-live yesterday. It is gone.
2) – A conflict inside you may cause stress. Perhaps you feel you ought to do something but you don't want to. You may have mixed feelings about someone or something and not know what to do.
- As the proverb says ‘No man is wise at all times’. You had better look into, understand yourself. It may be helpful to talk to someone about it.
3) – A fear of something may cause stress. Often we are afraid to do something, because we don’t know what will happen afterwards. Perhaps, you are stressed by fear you can’t identify.
- As the proverb says ‘Don’t climb the hill before you get to it’. You shouldn’t be fearful because most of the things we fear never come to pass. Do something. It’s often better to make a decision rather than do nothing.
4) – Several different problems may cause stress. Perhaps you feel you have too much responsibility.
- As the proverb says ‘Little by little and bit by bit’. Try to see your problems separately and deal with them one by one.
5) – Worry also may cause stress. Worry refers to negative self-talk, that often destructs the mind from focusing on the problem of hand. Worry can refer to a feeling of concern about someone else’s condition.
- As the proverb says ‘Cheek brings success’. Re-define your worry as a problem. Then you can do something about it instead of just worrying. Do something before things become worse!
4.7. In conclusion we’d like to present you with some recommendations how to avoid stress and be happy.
10 Commandments for a Student
- Thou shalt not worry, for worry is the most unproductive of all human activities.
- Thou shalt not be fearful , for most of the things we fear never come to pass.
- Thou shalt not cross bridges before you get to them , for no one yet has succeeded in accomplishing this.
- Thou shalt face each problem as it comes : you can handle only one at a time anyway.
- Thou shalt not take problems to bed with you , for they make very poor bedfellows.
- Thou shalt not borrow other people's problems : they can take better care of them than you can.
- Thou shalt not try to relive yesterday for good or ill - it is gone. Concentrate on what is happening in your life today.
- Thou shalt count thy blessings , never overlooking the small ones, for a lot of small blessings add up to a big one.
- Thou shalt be a good listener , for only when you listen do you hear ideas different from your own. It's very hard to learn something new when you're talking.
- Thou shalt not become bogged down by frustration , for 90 percent of it is rooted in self-pity and it will only interfere with positive action.
VII. Reflexion. (teacher) Let’s segregate basic recommendations for preserving your health. Each group is to pick out the most useful recommendation on each problem of all we’ve discussed today. (teacher writes the ideas on the blackboard)
VIII. Commenting on the work and giving marks.