Цель урока: совершенствование речевых навыков.
- совершенствовать лексические и грамматические навыки в устной речи;
- развивать умение читать с целью полного понимания прочитанного;
- развивать умение обобщать и анализировать.
- карточки с текстами и словами,
- презентация (см. приложение).
1. Организационный момент.
Today we are going to discuss people who succeeded in politics. What traits of character should they have?
What traits of character can you name? (Слайд 2).
3. You can add the words from the word-box.
TALKING ABOUT PEOPLE
1. Virtuous (good) characteristics: affable, amiable, good-natured, good-humoured, kind, kind-hearted, communicative, sociable, friendly, modest, discreet, generous, considerate, attentive, thoughtful, earnest, sincere, enthusiastic, calm, quiet, composed, self-possessed, honest, merciful, impartial, just, patient, forbearing, sympathetic, respectable, cordial, broad-minded, witty, intelligent, dignified, capable, benevolent, philanthropic, scrupulous, consistent, easy-going, affectionate, devoted, loyal, courageous, persevering, industrious, hard-working, sweet, gentle, proud. (Слайд 3).
2. Evil (bad) characteristics: ill-natured, unkind, hard-hearted, reserved, uncommunicative, unsociable, hostile, haughty, arrogant, dashing, showy, indiscreet, unscrupulous, greedy, inconsistent, tactless, insincere, hypocritical, false, vulgar, double-faced, indifferent, dispassionate, fussy, unrestrained, dishonest, cruel, partial, intolerant, conceited, self-willed, willful, capricious, perverse, insensible, inconsiderate, servile, presumptuous, deceitful, harsh, sulky, sullen, obstinate, coarse, rude, vain, impertinent, impudent, revengeful. (Слайд 4).
4. What do you think what kind of people can succeed in politics?
Ученики высказывают свои предположения. (Слайд 5).
5. Let's read an opinion of a modern expert about the problem.
Ученики читают упражнение 1(1) со страницы 54 учебника.
Here is an opinion of a modern expert about the problem:
Any politician who wants to win should be a real personality (личность). He/she should have a will (воля) to win and a wish to have power. He/she should use power not for his/her own needs but for improving the situation in the country and for achieving definite aims.
A good politician should have an ability to risk and to love risking if he/she wants to win. He/she should be able to take non-traditional decisions and to give up (жертвовать) some people from his/her team. If a good politician understands that some people can't perform their functions he/she should change these people and forget how hard it was. A politician, who can't change some members of the team when it is necessary will lose. It's very important for a politician to have clever advisors but it is he/she who is responsible for the decisions. Though people often say that a politician who has clever advisors is not clever!
Political decisions may be ruthless (безжалостный) for some people and good for the majority of the people. So, a good politician should be ready to take ruthless decisions.
A politician who follows one and the same strategic line and doesn't revise his/her ideas won't live a long life in politics. But again, people may say that he/she has no will to finish something!
No image-maker can help a person who is nothing. It is impossible to improve 'nothing'. Image-makers and advisors can add only 15-20% to the image of a politician.
The power should be used by a politician not for power itself but for achieving definite aims.
Which of the expert's ideas do these statements confirm (подтверждать)?
- A politician should be power-loving.
- A politician should be gifted.
- A politician should be risky.
- A politician should be ambitious.
- A politician should be pliable (гибкий, уступчивый). (Слайд 6).
Which ideas of the expert do you agree with?
Впрезентации даны опоры для выражения согласия/несогласия:
That's just what I was thinking.
(I couldn't agree more.)
That is not the way I see it.
Actually / in fact I think:
Yes, but we shouldn't forget that:
(Yes, there is a lot in what the expert says, but:) (Слайд 7).
6. Now organize three groups and read about the politicians of Great Britain, the USA and Russia. Tell what traits of character they have.
Ученики делятся на три группы, каждая из которых получает текст об одном из политических деятелей. Время работы ограниченно.
Abraham Lincoln is the most famous example of the "Amer. can dream". Many Americans think that in their country a man ma) rise from the lowest to the highest position. That was exactly what Lincoln did. He was born in 1809 in a small farm in Kentucky. When Abraham was quite young, the family moved to the wild forest land of Indiana.
He hardly had any education. He only learned to read and write and simple arithmetic. In 1830 Abraham left his father's farm and we, to Springfield, Illinois. There he became a clerk in a store and worked hard to improve his education. In 1836 he became a lawyer.
He entered politics, too, and in 1834 became a candidate to tr Parliament of Illinois. He soon became a force in the political life. In 1847 he went as a Congressman the National Assembly (National Parliament).
Slavery was then becoming a burning question in America... politics. Many people in the Northern states wanted to abolish it. The Southern states opposed the abolition. The Southerners said that it would mean economic ruin for them. The reason was that the prosperity of the South was based on cotton growing, and only Negroes worked there.
The Southerners threatened that if the North didn't cease its fight against slavery, the Southern states would leave the Union. They wanted to form an independent "Confederacy". In 1860 Lincoln was elected the President of the USA. In 1861 seven states left the Union and elected their own President, Jefferson Davis. The Confederacy was formed.
Lincoln was strongly against slavery and even more strongly against the break-up of the Union. In 1862 the American Civil War between the North and the South began.
At first the war went badly for the North. The Southerners headed by General Robert Lee and Colonel Jackson won some brilliant victories. But Lincoln did not lose courage. On April 9, General Lee surrendered. The Civil War was over. Lincoln tried to convince former enemies that they should live in peace. On April 14, the President and his wife visited a theatre in Washington. During the performance Lincoln was shot by an actor who supported Confederacy.
Abraham Lincoln died next morning. People admire Lincoln for political moderation. They admire him because he tried to preserve the nation. He is a symbol of American democracy. (Слайд 8).
Peter the Great
Peter I, or Peter the Great was one of the most outstanding rulers and reformers in Russian history. He was Tsar of Russia and became Emperor in 1721. First he ruled together with his brother Ivan and his sister Sofya. In 1696 he became a sole ruler.
He was a healthy, lively and clever child. He loved military games and enjoyed carpentry, blacksmithing and printing. At the age of 17 he was married.
Peter I is famous for drawing Russia further to the East. He also transferred the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg. Peter travelled much in Western Europe and tried to carry western customs and habits to Russia. He introduced western technology. He completely changed the Russian government and military system: he increased the power of the monarch and reduced the power of boyars and the church.
In foreign policy, Peter I waged a war with Turkey (1695-1696) and the Great Northern War with Sweden (1700-1721), and a war with Persia (1722-1723). In these wars, he wanted to get access to the Baltic, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
Peter I played a great part in Russian history. After his death, Russia was much more secure and progressive than it had been before his reign. (Слайд 9).
Margaret Thatcher is the second daughter of a grocer and a dressmaker, who became the first woman in European history to be elected Prime Minister. Then she became the first British Prime Minister in the twentieth century who won three consecutive terms. At the time of her resignation in 1990, she was the longest-serving Prime Minister of Britain since 1827. Some people consider her a true political revolutionary because she broadened the base of the Conservative Party, including the middle class along with the wealthy aristocracy.
Margaret Thatcher was born on October 13, 1925, in Lincolnshire, England. She was a clever child. Early in life she decided to become a member of Parliament. She was educated at Somerville College and at Oxford University. She earned a master of arts degree from Oxford in 1950 and worked for a short time as a research chemist. In 1950 she married Denis Thatcher, a director of a paint firm. After her marriage she specialized in tax law.
In the 1959 elections Thatcher won a seat in Parliament. Because of her debating skills she soon became prominent among other politicians. In 1974 she became the leader of the Conservative Party.
When the Conservatives won a decisive victory in the 1979 general elections, Thatcher became Prime Minister. As Prime Minister she limited government control, giving individuals greater independence from the state and ending government interference in the economy. Thatcher became known as the Iron Lady because of her strict control over her cabinet and the country's economic policies.
During her third term Thatcher continued the "Thatcher revolution" by returning education, health care and housing to private control.
Margaret Thatcher resigned from office in 1990. Margaret Thatcher is certainly an outstanding figure in Britain's political life. According to political observers, she brought long-needed changes to British government and society. (Слайд 10).
Выслушав и оценив ответы каждой из групп, предложить для решения следующую проблему:
7. Try to give a definition of a politician.
Ученики работают в группах, затем делятся своими мнениями и записывают получившееся определение на доске. После этого им предлагается познакомиться с определением из Википедии.
A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. This includes people who hold decision-making positions in government, and people who seek those positions, whether by means of election, coup d'etat, appointment, electoral fraud, conquest, right of inheritance (see also: divine right) or other means. (Слайд 11).
Ученики читают дополнение к определению из Википедии.
Considered a politician
A person who is active in party politics.
Any person influencing group opinions in his or her favor can be termed a politician. For example, a worker participating in office politics is a politician, but only so far as the operations of his or her workplace are concerned.
Not considered a politician
Members of government who serve purely functional roles, such as bureaucrats.
Ordinary citizens with the power to vote cannot properly be called politicians even though they can participate in group decision-making. A politician participates in public debate that leads to a group decision being reached, while a voter is simply responding to that debate.
8. Homework. (Слайд 12).
Домашнее задание даётся в зависимости от уровня подготовки группы. Более сильным ученикам - рассказ об одном из российских политиков и анализ черт его характера. Ученикам с более слабой подготовкой - упр.5, стр.57 (учебник) - прочитать об одном из политических деятелей двадцатого века и выполнить задания.
- Английский язык: Учебник для 10 - 11 класса общеобразовательных учреждений/ В. П. Кузовлев, Н. П. Лапа, Э. Ш. Перегудова и др. - М.: Просвещение,2007
- Голицинский Ю. Б. Великобритания: Пособие по страноведению. - СПб.: КАРО, 2002
- Нестерчук Г. В., Иванова В. М. США и американцы. - Минск: Вышэйшая школа, 1998