The history of the Kaluga’s Land goes back to the far past. Kaluga is mentioned for the first time in the chronicle of 1371. Being situated on the South borderland of Moscow State, Kaluga has served as the forward outpost for many centuries, beating off raids of numerous outlandish conquerors. Here severe battles with tatar - mongol hordes occurred. In 1606-1607 Kaluga was a centre of Peasants War under Ivan Bolotnikov's leadership.
Great events took place on the Kaluga’s Land in the days of the Patriotic War of 1812. During the known battles near Tarutino village the Russian Army inflicted destructive onslaught to the Napoleon Army and after that it was from here, starting from the Kaluga’s Land that the panic retreat of the Napoleon Army began.
Kalugians showed mass heroism during the Great Patriotic War. The best people went to the Army with the arms in their handsto defendthe country, showing the miracles of bravity and courage. Many of them gave their lives for the freedom and independence of the Motherland. About 150 of them became Heroes of the Soviet Union and among them the marshal of the Soviet Union G.K. Zhukov, who has received this title four times, and a former turner of Kaluga’s machinery plant, an airman A.T.Tupolev- twice. Five Kalugians repeated Alexander Matrosovs feat, fifteen became full Knights of the Order of Glory. Thousands of our countrymen were awarded with orders and medals.
During the first five-year years, all previous enterprises are reconstructed and expanded here, and new ones are being built: the "Giant" spoke factory, the sewing factory. In 1939, Kaluga laid down Europe’s largest Synthetic Fragrance Mill (SFM). However, the main enterprises appeared in the post-war years. Today it is mechanical engineering, instrument making, metal working and electrical engineering industry. Diesel locomotives, turbines, pyrometric devices are produced here; woodworking, chemical and food industry enterprises operate.
Today, the Kaluga region is one of the most developed sub-projects of R.F. Region occupies the leading position in Russia in terms of the growth rate of industry and the level of advanced technologies introduced annually into the production. A special place is occupied by the automotive cluster. It includes Russian and foreign enterprises. The core of the cluster is three manufacturers: Volkswagen Group Rus, Peugeot-CitroenMitsubishi Auto and Volvo. It was from the automotive industry that the history of Kaluga’s new economy began, fundamentally changing the structure of the industrial complex. Within the framework of the pharmaceutical cluster, which has become the basis for the development of the knowledge economy, the production of the world leaders of the pharmaceutical industry "Berlin - Chemie/Menarini," AstraZeneca, "etc. In 2015, Kaluga International Airport was reconstructed. Thus, the new economic policy allowed creating conditions for the development of high-tech production, to form a quality infrastructure and social environment.
Kaluga is famous for scientists, writers, artists, and public figures. The famous mathematician P. L. Chebyshev, the first female President of the Russian Academy of Sciences E. R. Dashkova, the outstanding architect V. I. Bazhenov and the famous Navigator S. I. Chelyuskin were born here.In Kaluga there were classics of Russian literature A. Radishchev, G. Derzhavin, A. Pushkin, N. Gogol, A. Polezhaev, L. Tolstoy, I. Turgenev, F. Dostoevsky and A. Chekhov, artists I. Levitan, V. Polenov, N. Yaroshenko, P. Konchalovsky and others. The pride of Kaluga is the outstanding figure of Russian science and the founder of cosmonautics, K. E. Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935).
All those who are interested in this branch of science, seek to visit our city, visit the state Museum of the history of cosmonautics named after K. E. Tsiolkovsky, visit the house near the Oka, where the scientist lived and worked, lay flowers on his grave, wander under the shade of age-old lime trees in the favorite place of rest of Konstantin Eduardovich.
A great friend of Kaluga was the discoverer of outer space Yuri Gagarin.He often visited Kaluga, met with its residents, and even put thestone in the foundation of the Museum of the history of cosmonautics.
He was the first to be awarded the title of honorary citizen of Kaluga. Following the example of Yuri Gagarin, all cosmonauts, returning from flights, visit Kaluga.Various exhibitions are held on the ground floor of the cosmonautics Museum, and the entrance to the planetarium is located. On the second floor there is a permanent exhibition dedicated to the history of aviation and aeronautics.
Here you can see the scientific heritage of K. E. Tsiolkovsky, as well as a life-size model of the Soviet Mir space station. You can go inside and see what conditions the astronauts lived and worked in. More than 650 thousand people visit the cosmonautics Museum every year.
Choose the correct answer
1. When was Kaluga founded?
2. Kaluga was the center of the peasant war 1606-1607 under the leadership of...
a) Lzhedmitriy 2
b) Ivan Groznyj
3. Where did the Russian army deliver a devastating blow to Napoleon's army?
d) St. Petersburg
4. How many times has G.K. Zhukov been awarded the star of a Hero of the Soviet Union?
5. Europe’s largest plant of synthetic aromatic substances was built in.
6. What kind of industry gave rise to a new history of the economy in Kaluga?
7. The core of the Kaluga automotive cluster is...
b) Volkswagen Group Rus
d) Mercedes Benz
8. The pride of Kaluga is an outstanding figure in Russian science and the founder of astronautics.
9. Who laid the first stone in the foundation of the Cosmonautics Museum in Kaluga?
10. What Gagarin's tradition is still observed by all cosmonauts in Russia?
a) dance the waltz
b) drink coffee
c) visit Kaluga
d) swim in the pool
11. What was the name of the first Soviet space station?
b) Belka and Strelka
12. Why do people like to visit Kaluga?
a) to buy souvenirs
b) to visit the Museum of Cosmonautics
c) to visit attractions
d) to open the mind