Развитие познавательного интереса при изучении темы «Национальные праздники России и англоговорящих стран»

Разделы: Иностранные языки


На уроках по теме “Праздники России и англоговорящих стран” учащиеся знакомятся с историей разнообразных праздников и традиций  стран изучаемого языка и России. Цель данной методической разработки является систематизация имеющихся знаний суворовцев, расширение и дополнение их новым фактическим материалом. Уроки по теме «Праздники России и англововорящих стран» построены по следующему принципу: презентация фактического материала; первичное лексико-грамматическое закрепление; побудительная мотивация в речи. Тексты имеют упражнения, направленные на формирование лексико-грамматических навыков. Они знакомят учащихся с культурой стран изучаемого языка, способствуют совершенствованию навыков чтения, а также навыков монологической и диалогической речи в рамках изложенного материала.

С помощью таких упражнений учащиеся вырабатывают умение быстро находить нужную информацию и точно ее излагать в сжатом виде.

Рациональное применение яркой наглядности, вербальных опор при введении и отработки языкового материала обеспечивает оптимальные условия для его восприятия, осмысления, запоминания, а также для стимулирования речевой активности учащихся.

Урок № 1

UK  HOLIDAYS

Bank Holidays, the peculiar English holidays, were appointed by Act of Parliament in 1871. They come four times a year: Easter Monday, Whit-Monday, the first Monday in August and December 26th. December 26th is Boxing Day. The ‘boxing’ refers to the boxes of Christmas presents which are usually given to the people who have given service during a year. Other public holidays are: Christmas Day, New Year’s Day, Good Friday and May Day. On these days all banks and all places of business are closed and practically everyone takes a holiday.
But besides public holidays the British people observe certain traditions on such days as Pancake Day, Bonfire Night, St. Valentine’s Day, April Fool’s Day, Mother’s Day, which unless they fall on Sunday are ordinary working days.

TASKS

I. Find words and phrases in the text that mean:

Пасха_________________________________________________________________
Духов День____________________________________________________________
Великая Пятница_______________________________________________________
День Святого Валентина_________________________________________________
Первое Апреля_________________________________________________________

II. Can you answer the following questions?

  1. How many public holidays are there in Great Britain?
  2. What are they?
  3. When does everyone take a holiday?

III. Read the following text. Discuss the text with your classmates.

ORIGINS OF HALLOWE’EN

Halloween, October 31 is the witchiest night of the year. It is the eve of the Festival of All Hallows, better known as All Saints, but it also coincides with a much older pagan festival – Samhain – which was celebrated by the Druids in honour of the Celtic New Year. And because Samhain marked the end of summer sunshine and the beginning of winter’s darkness, it was supposed to herald the arrival of hordes of witches, ghosts and demons. Added to this, the ancient Romans held their Festival of Pomona at about this of year, Pomona being the goddess of fruit-trees and apples; hence the predominance of apples at Halloween party games. All these ceremonies were grafted one upon the other over centuries to become modern Halloween.
In Britain Halloween celebrations have, until recently, been confined to the younger generation.
A traditional feature of the children’s Halloween party is ‘love magic’. In modern Aberdeen young girls stand in turn before a looking glass at the stroke of midnight and each brushes her hair three times. A face is then supposed to materialize in the mirror – that of the boy whom fate has decreed she will one day marry. Now it is not only children but adults who hold witchy dances and ghost parties, and listen to shine-chilling tales of the ghosts, goblins and Halloween.

Уроки № 2-3

Bank Holidays in the United Kingdom

A  bank holiday is an official holiday when all banks and post offices are closed. Most factories, offices and shops are closed, too. The following days are bank holidays in Great Britain: New Year’s Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, May Day Bank Holiday, Spring Bank Holiday, August Bank Holiday,  Christmas Day and Boxing Day.
Most of bank holidays are religious holidays. Now for most people they are simply days on which people eat, drink and make merry.
Christmas day is the most popular of bank holidays. It is celebrated on December, 25. On this day many people go to churches, open their Christmas presents, eat a Christmas dinner of roast turkey and Christmas pudding. Many people watch the Queen’s Christmas broadcast on TV. This day is a traditional family reunion day and a special day for children.
Boxing Day is on December, 26. People usually gave “Christmas boxes”, or  gifts of money, to servants on this day. Today many people still give a Christmas gift to paperboys and girls.
New Year’s day is on January,1. It is not marked with any custom in Great Britain. Traditional New Year parties and dances are held on New Year’s Eve. People see the old year out  and the New Year in.
Good Friday is the Friday before Easter when the church marks the death of Christ. On this day people eat hot-cross buns-buns marked on top with a cross.
Easter Monday is the day after Easter Day. It is a traditional day for the start of the summer tourist season.
May day Bank Holiday is the first Monday after the first of May (May Day). May Day which is not a bank holiday, is a celebration of the coming of spring. On May Day different outdoor events are held. Usually May Queen, the most beautiful girl of the celebration, is selected.
Spring Bank Holiday  falls on the last Monday in May. August Bank Holiday is held on last Monday in August.

Topical Vocabulary

a  bank holiday национальный праздник
a religious holiday религиозный праздник
to make merry веселиться
to be celebrated отмечать
to go to churches идти в церковь
to open one’s Christmas present открыть свой рождественский подарок
a Christmas dinner рождественский обед
roast turkey жареная индейка
Christmas pudding рождественский пудинг
to watch the Queen’s Christmas broadcast смотреть рождественское выступление королевы по телевидению
a family reunion day день встречи семьи
to give Christmas boxes to servants дарить слугам рождественские подарки
a gifts of money деньги в подарок
paperboys and girls разносчики газет
to be marked with any a custom отмечать с соблюдением каких-либо традиций
a New Year party новогодняя вечеринка
to be held on New Year’s Eve проводить в канун Нового года
to see the old year out   провожать старый год
to see the  New Year in встречать новый год
to mark the death of Christ отмечать смерть Христа
a hot-cross bun булочка с крестом наверху
the start of the summer tourist season начало летнего туристического сезона
a celebration of the coming of spring празднование прихода весны
to  hold different outdoor events проводить различные мероприятия на открытом воздухе
a celebration праздник, празднование
to select May Queen выбрать Майскую королеву
to fall on приходить на (какой-либо день)

Answer the questions:

  1. What is a bank holiday?
  2. How are bank holidays celebrated?
  3. How is the most popular of all bank holidays marked?
  4. What traditions are observed on December, 26?
  5. What customs is new Year’s Day marked with?
  6. What is Good Friday?
  7. When is the coming of spring celebrated?
  8. What is May Day and May Day Bank holiday?
  9. What days do spring Bank Haliday and August Bank Holiday fall jn?

Translate into English:

  1. Во время официальных, или банковских, праздников закрыты все банки, почтовые отделения, большая часть магазинов.
  2. Сейчас официальные праздники – не религиозные праздники, а просто дни, когда люди веселятся.
  3. Рождество, 25 декабря – это день, когда собирается вся семья.
  4. Люди обычно смотрят рождественское выступление королевы, посещают церковь, обмениваются (exchange) рождественскими подарками.
  5. 26 декабря люди дарят рождественские подарки или деньги разносчикам газет.
  6. С новым годом не связаны особые (particular) традиции.

Урок №4

US HOLIDAYS

In the USA Constitution there is no provision for national holidays. Each state has the right to decide which holiday to observe. Many states have holidays of their own.
There are eight major holidays observed in the USA.
Columbus Day is observed on October 12 in 34 States of the USA and in Puerto Rico. It commemorates the discovery of America in 1492 by Christopher Columbus. The son of a weaver from Genoa, Columbus believed that he could reach India by sailing west. Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain rendered him financial assistance, and in August 1492 he set sail on the ‘Santa Maria’ and two other vessels. They reached the West Indies three months later and took the news back to Europe. Columbus made three more voyages to America.
Independence Day is the holiday, commemorating the signing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4. On this day in 1776 the final draft of the Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson was adopted. The celebration of it began in the American Revolution. Since then it has been a patriotic holiday. Traditionally it is celebrated with firing of guns and fireworks, parades and open-air meetings.
Thanksgiving Day is the holiday commemorating the harvest reaped by the Plymouth Colony in 1621, after a winter of starvation and privation. The first national Thanksgiving Day, proclaimed by G. Washington, was celebrated on November 26, 1789. Lincoln revived the custom in 1863. In 1941 Congress passed a resolution decreeing that Thanksgiving should fall on the fourth Thursday of November. The day is observed by church services and family reunions.

TASKS

I. Match the English word of phrase with its Russian equivalent.

to observe, to celebrate                               возродить
to commemorate                                         голод
church services                                            принять резолюцию
to adopt                                                       лишения
a final draft                                                 церковные службы
privation                                                     отмечать, праздновать
to revive                                                     принять, утвердить
to pass a resolution                                    окончательный проект

II. Here are descriptions of some of the USA holidays. Match them up to the appropriate holidays.

  1. The day is observed by church services and family reunion.
  2. It commemorates the discovery of America.
  3. It celebrates the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
  1. Independence Day
  2. Thanksgiving Day
  3. Columbus Day

III. Can you answer the following questions? Write a sentence in answer to each question

  1. How many holidays are there in the USA altogether?______________________
  2. What are the main holidays observed in the USA?_________________________
  3. What does Columbus Day commemorate?_______________________________
  4. What do you know about Christopher Columbus?_________________________
  5. What does Independence Day honour?__________________________________
  6. What does Thanksgiving Day celebrate?_________________________________
  7. What other USA holidays do you know?_________________________________

IV. Write a description of one the American holidays which is not mentioned in the text.

V. Rearrange the dates in the correct order.

1776; 1863; 1941; 1789; 1621; 1492.

VI. Write a description of the events connected with the given dates.

Уроки № 5-6

Celebrations in the USA

The population of the USA in made up of people of different nationalities. Centuries ago they brought with them their native celebrations. Some holidays which are marked in the United States originated in America. The number of holidays is different in different states – from 8 in the District of Columbia to 20 in Oklahoma. But the most important holidays are celebrated throughout the USA. They are: New Year’s Day (January 1), Lincoln’s Birthday (February 12), Washington’s Birthday (February 22), Independence Day (July 4), Thanksgiving Day (fourth Thursday in November), Christmas (December 25). Here are a few words about them.
On New Year’s Day people see the old year off and the New Year in. Most people stay up all night, even children. At midnight many people go outside and shout “Happy New Year!”  Some people  set off fireworks and blow automobile horns which are heard everywhere. Everybody exchanges and good wishes. Offices, factories, banks and stores do not work on this day.
Lincoln’s birthday is celebrated every year on February 12. Abraham Lincoln was President during the Civil War (1861-1865) he led the fight to  keep the nation together and to free the slaves. His life ended tragically. He was killed at the theatre during the performance soon after the victory of the North. In honour of this great man a beautiful memorial has been built in Washington, D.C. Lincoln’s birthday is celebrated every year on February 12.
Washington’s birthday is marked on February 22. George Washington led the American Army to victory in the War for Independence. Later he was elected President of the United States and was office for 8 years (1789-1797). The national capital of the United States, a state and several towns are named after  George Washington.
One of the greatest holidays in Independence Day. On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was signed. It proclaimed independence of the thirteen British colonies from Great Britain. July 4 has become the greatest holiday since. In the past this day was marked with big parades and fireworks but now it is celebrated more quietly. Cities and towns are decorated with flags on that day, there are parades in some places, but most people just go on picnics to the countryside.
Labour Day  is celebrated on the first Monday in September. On this day workers  make a public show with marches, meetings, etc. It also marks the beginning of the school year and the end of summer.
Thanksgiving Day  is marked on the fourth Thursday of November. On this day the Americans honour the memory of the first settlers.  It also marks the end of the  harvest season. It is a long-standing tradition to make a festive meal with a fried turkey on this on this day.
Christmas is a  religious holiday which symbolizes the birth of Jesus Christ. By this day people  decorate fir trees with toys and candies. Children wait for Santa Claus who comes to every house and brings them presents. Before going to bed, children leave their shoes to find in them what  they want most of all the next morning. Some people, especially young people, like to celebrate it in restaurants and cafes and pubs, but most people prefer to atay at home with their family on this day.

Topical Vocabulary

to make up of smb., smth. состоять из кого-либо, чего-либо
a native celebration национальный праздник
to be marked отмечаться
to originate in происходить из, возникать в
to be celebrated throughout the USA праздноваться во всех штатах
New Year’s Day Новый год
to see the old year off провожать старый год
to see the New Year in встречать Новый год
to stay up all night не спать всю ночь
to see off fireworks запускать фейерверки
to exchange presents and good wishes обмениваться подарками и пожеланиями
Lincoln’s birthday день рождения Линкольна
the Civil War Гражданская война
to lead the fight возглавлять борьбу
to keep the nation together сохранять единство нации
to free the slaves освободить рабов
to end tragically закончить трагически
the victory of the North победа северян
in honour of smb. в честь кого-либо
Washington’s birthbay день рождения Вашингтона
to lead the army to victory привести армию к победе
the War for Independence Война за независимость
to be elected President быть избранным президентом
to be in office находиться на посту, служить
to be named after smb. быть названным в честь кого-либо
Independence Day День независимости
the Declaration of Independence Декларация независимости
to be signed быть подписанным
to proclaim independence провозгласить независимость
a colony колония
to be marked with parades and fireworks отмечать парадами и фейерверками
to be decorated with flags быть украшенным флагами
to go on picnics to the countryside отправиться на пикник за город
Labour Day День труда
to make a public show проводить акцию
Thanksgiving Day День Благодарения
to honour the memory of smb. увековечить память кого-либо
the first settlers первые поселенцы
the harvest season сезон сбора урожая
a long-standing tradition старая традиция
to make a festive meal устроить праздничный обед
Christmas Рождество
a religious holiday религиозный праздник
to symbolize the birth of Jesus Christ символизировать рождение Иисуса Христа
to decorate fir trees with toys and candies украшать елку игрушками и сладостями
to prefer to stay at home предпочитать оставаться дома

Answer the questions:

  1. Why is the number of holidays different in different states?
  2. What kind of holiday is New Year’s Day?
  3. Birthdays of what political figures are national holidays?
  4. What is Independence Day?
  5. What is Thanksgiving Day?
  6. What kind of holiday is Christmas?

Translate into English:

  1. Люди разных национальностей принесли с собой свои национальные праздники.
  2. Общенациональные (national) праздники справляются на всей территории США.
  3. Во время общенациональных праздников все банки, офисы и магазины не работают.
  4. Новый год – это праздник, когда люди провожают старый год и встречают новый; они обмениваются подарками и пожеланиями.
  5. Несколько общенациональных праздников – это дни рождения политических деятелей США.
  6. Вашингтон возглавлял американскую армию в войне за независимость. После победы он был избран президентом США.
  7. Линкольн был президентом США, был у власти во время гражданской войны и возглавлял борьбу за освобождение рабов.
  8. День независимости отмечается в честь подписания (signing) Декларации независимости.
  9. Большинство праздников отмечается парадами и фейерверками, многие устраивают праздничные обеды и отправляются на пикники за город.
  10. В день Благодарения американцы чтят память первых поселенцев.
  11. Рождество символизирует рождение Иисуса Христа.

Уроки № 7-8

HOLIDAYS IN RUSSIA

There are dates and events in the life of our country that are memorable to every Russian citizen. The dates of this kind are: Victory Day, May Day, Constitution Day, the Women’s Day, the Day of Sovereignty of the Russian Federation. These are national holidays, people do not work on these days. The most memorable date is the Victory Day which is celebrated on May 9 to commemorate the Victory of the Russian troops over the Nazi invaders. Love for freedom has been a national character of the Russian people. When Russia was attacked by the enemy, the Russian people rose up in defence of their Motherland.
May Day is regarded as the day of solidarity of the workers of the world. It commemorates the tragic of the years 1884-88 in Chicago when the workers were fighting for their rights.
Recently new national holidays have been introduced. They are Christmas and Easter. They are of religious origin.
In Russia Christmas is celebrated on January 7. In Europe and in the USA it is observed on December 25. On Christmas people celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ. Easter symbolizes the Revival of Jesus Christ. For the greater part of people of our country these holidays have lost their religious significance and are the days of family reunion, relax happiness.
There is one more holiday which is loved both by adults and children – this is New Year, with a New Year Tree, bells, presents, and Grandpa Frost, European Santa Claus. People believe that a miracle is a must on this day. New Year’s celebrations receive widespread coverage by mass media.
On the New Year night people go to a dance, visit their friends or stay at home and watch TV. Party-goers enjoy a hearty meal.
Now January 1 is a national holiday, fortunately for those who like to celebrate most of the night.

TASKS
I. Rearrange the list holidays in the correct order.

May Day, the Day of Sovereignty of the Russian Federation, New Year, Easter, Victory Day, Constitution Day, Christmas, the Women’s Day.

II. Write some sentences in answer to the following questions:

  • How many national holidays are there in Russia?
  • What national holidays are observed in Russia?
  • What religious holidays are celebrated in Russia?
  • What is the favourite holiday of the Russians?

 

III. Ask your classmate about his/her favourite holiday. Write down questions you’d like to ask.

IV. Write a description of your favourite holiday.

Урок №9

План-конспект  урока

Тема:  Праздники и традиции России и англоязычных стран.

Цели урока:

  • Воспитательная – воспитание уважительного и терпимого отношения к культуре англоязычных стран и более глубокое осознание своей родной культуры;
  • Познавательная – знакомство с праздниками и традициями России и англоязычных стран, умение извлекать информацию по теме;
  • Развивающая – развитие творческих способностей учащихся, развитие навыков догадки, сопоставления;
  • Учебная – развитие речевого умения (диалогическая форма речи, развитие умения использовать в речи речевые клише);
  • Сопутствующая – развитие умения говорить на основе пройденного материала.

Материальное обеспечение:

  • рисунки, открытки;
  • карточки, ПРМ;
  • интерактивная доска;
  • компьютер

ХОД  УРОКА

I. Организационный момент (отдача рапорта, тема и цели урока) Дежурный отдает рапорт.
II. Фонетическая зарядка

Проговаривание названий праздников и сложных ЛЕ по теме с учителем.

Учащиеся проговаривают название праздников.
III. Речевая зарядка

1. You know that there are many holidays and traditions or celebrations. Who can explain the difference between these words.
2. Now I want you to tell me holidays and traditions which you know. Holidays and traditions of any country.

 

Учащиеся объясняют разницу между праздниками и традициями
Учащиеся называют праздники и традиции.

IV. Активизация ЛЕ по теме «Праздники» – выполнение лексико-грамматических упражнений.

On your desks you have two sheets of paper with exercises. You have to match the holidays and their definitions and to fill in the text using suitable words.

Учащиеся выполняют упражнения на карточках.
V. Просмотр видеосюжета  (развитие навыков извлечения необходимой информации).

You know that there are many kinds of traditions and one of them is a carnivsl.
What countries are carnivals celebrated in?
What do people wear during a carnival?
What do they do?
Now watch the video and check your guesses.
What country was it?
What city is a carnival celebrated in?
How long does a carnival last?

Учащиеся просматривают видео о карнавале в Лондоне и дают ответы на вопросы.
VI. Развитие навыков диалогической речи
  1. It is very important to make friends and to have the possibility to communicate. You have to make a small dialogue about any holiday.
  2. Now listen to the dialogues.
Учащиеся составляют диалог в парах.
VII. Развитие монологической речи

Now look at the blackboard and you can see pictures or cards. What holiday do they shown?
Now let’s remember everything you have learnt on this theme. So, what can you tell about holidays in America, Great Britain and Russia?
Good for you.

Прослушивают диалоги.
VIII. Развитие навыков аудирования и контроль понимания.
Now listen to the text about another tradition in the USA. And then you will answer the questions:
  1. When is the Groundhog Day celebrated?
  2. What is a groundhog?
  3. In what case will there be six more weeks of spring?
  4. If a groundhog sees no shadow, it’s a sign of an early spring, isn’t it?
  5. How is a groundhog called in Pennsylvania?
Учащиеся рассказывают монологи о традициях и праздниках  в разных странах с опорой на пройденное.
IX. Подведение итогов урока, оценки, с/п:

Our lesson is over. It’s clear that everyone worked hard at the lesson. Your marks are the following... and your task will be to repeat everything on the theme.

Учащиеся прослушивают текст о Дне сурка в США, а затем отвечают на вопросы по тексту.

7.03.2015