Цели: изучить специфику жизни Австралии, истории, географии, форм правления, экологии, культуры, образования; совершенствовать знания и умения практического владения языком как средством общения, по теме “Англоязычные страны”; повышать мотивацию учащихся с целью дальнейшего самостоятельного изучения английского языка; развивать творческую инициативу учащихся; их самостоятельность и активность.
Оформление классной комнаты: карта, флаг, эмблема Австралии, картины с видами городов (Canberra, Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbone, Adelaide, Hobard, Pertn); картина, на которой раскрытая книга, за нею слова Collect necessary information about…; названия Австралии – FIFTH CONTINENT, SIXTH CONTINENT, GREEN CONTINENT, MYSTERIOUS LAND, SUNLIT LAND, AUSIE LAND (or AUSIE), DOWN LINDER LAND.
Ведущий проекта – учитель английского языка
Students: 10th formers (a group of 12 students)
Time: 80 minutes – double period
Teacher: Dear boys and girls, today you will see the results of our work. They will be presented in a proper way by the pupils of the tenth form. The aim of the project is to determine the best knowledge of Australia, its history, institutions, geography, ecology, culture, education, Australian life.
1-й ученик (показывая на картину с раскрытой книгой, говорит):
We tried to collect necessary information about Australia, one of the English-speaking countries. It has many names. They are: Fifth Continent, Mysterious land, Down Under Land, Ausie Land (or Ausie).
Australians all let us rejoice,
For we are young and free;
We’ve golden soil and wealth for toil;
Our home is girt by sea;
Our land abounds in nature’s gifts
Of beauty rich and rare;
In history’s page, let every stage
Advance Australia Fair.
So begins the national’s anthem of the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia Fair, the title brings up images of a youth, romantic landscapes, and a peaceful lifestyle, all very realistic.
Since 19, April 1984, Australia has had a new National Anthem to play and sing at official functions and ceremonies. The song Advance Australia Fair has replaced the Royal Anthem, God Save the Queen as Australia’s National Anthem.
‘Advance Australia Fair’ was composed by Scottish emigrant Peter Dodds McCormick (1835-1916), who felt very proud of his new homeland, Australia. He arrived from Scotland during the 19th century and quickly realized that Australia has treasures of all kinds to be appreciated and cared for. His song ‘Advance Australia Fair’ was first sung on St Andrew’s Day, 30 November 1878, in Sydney. Only a few minor changes have been made to the words, to suit the society’s needs.
‘Advance Australia Fair’ is played at official functions, opening ceremonies, Anzac Day services, Australia Day functions, football grand finals, school assemblies, Australia Day functions, the Olympic and Commonwealth Games when an Australian has won a medal, and many other special times.
Australia is located southeast of Asia, and is the only country in the world to occupy a single continent. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, the Tasman Sea, the Coral Sea and the Arafura Sea. The nearest country is not New Zealand and Australia or Oceania. The Australia continent and the nearby island of Tasmania, form the sixth largest country on earth, with a total area of 7,686,850 sq km. This large area is populated by only 19 million people, making Australia the most sparsely populated continent after the Antarctica. Australia continents of six states and two territories.
Area of Australia’s States
|New South Wales||802,000 sq km|
|Victoria||228, 000 sq km|
|Queensland||1,727,000 sq km|
|South Australia||984,000 sq km|
|Northern Territory||1,346,000 sq km|
|Western Australia||2,526,000 sq km|
|Tasmania||68,000 sq km|
|Australia Capital Territory||2,400 sq km|
The Northern Territory, appropriately situated in the north, is a tropical area that runs into desert in the south. The Stated is very sparsely populated, and stations (huge farms). In the extreme north lies the biggest city, Darwin. It is not a big city by Australian standards, but Darwin is the main gateway to this vast state, and is also the closest city to Asia.
Queensland is situated in the northeastern corner of Australia, and lies in the tropical and subtropical climatic zones. The largest city is Brisbane, which has a population of 1.2 million people.
New South Wales to the south of Queensland is situated in the Subtropical to Temperate climatic zones.
This state is Australia is most populated, and is also home to the biggest city in Australia. That city is Sydney and is considered by many to be the most beautiful big city in the world.
The New South Wales coastline is blessed with many superb beaches, and contains many famous surf breaks such as Byron Bay.
Australia Capital Territory, which is home to the nation’s capital city Canberra. Canberra was planned before the first stone was laid, and was chosen as the site of the new capital city as a compromise between Sydney and Melbourne, who both competed for this title.
Across the New South Wales border lies the state of Victoria. Victoria is the smallest mainland state in Australia, but has the highest density of population. Australia’s second largest city, Melbourne is located near the south coast of the state.
If you continue west from Victoria you will eventually cross the border into South Australia.
South Australia is bordered by the Southern Oceanic and other mainland states. South Australia is sometimes referred to as the driest state in the driest continent on earth.
Toward the west of South Australia lies Western Australia. This state covers one third of the continent and is approximately five times the size of Texas. Yet there are only about 1.4 million people here. This makes Western Australia the most sparsely populated of all states, especially when you consider that over 1 million people live in the state’s capital city, Perth.
The only State in Australia that is not found on the mainland, is south of Victoria, and sits on the same latitude as central New Zealand. The State is roughly the size of Ireland, or Sri Lanka, and is one of the most mountainous islands on earth. Tasmania’s climate is temperate and the island is covered in wilderness. In fact, about one quarter of Tasmania is protected wilderness.
Australia is the lowest, flattest and, apart from Antarctica, the driest of the continents.
From north to South Australia spans 3,200 kilometres. From east to west, Australia’s widest point is approximately 4,000 kilometres. Australia’s coastline measures approximately 36,800 kilometers.
‘The Dry Continent’
The climate in Australia is varied and ranges from tropical to sub alpine.
Australia is also the driest inhabited continent on earth, but the eastern seaboard where the majority of the population is concentrated, is a lush and fertile area, with a climate ranging from temperate to tropical. The main mountain range is known as the Great Dividing Range has an area known as the Snowy Mountains, or otherwise known as the Australian Alps. This area actually receives snow than Switzerland, and is the only area suitable for skiing in Australia.
Most of the continent recieves more than 3,000 hours of sunshine a year, or nearly 70% of the total possible.
Australia also contains many pockets of tropical and temperate rain forest on the eastern coast, but the predominate forest in Australia is Eucalypti forest.
The southwest corner of Western Australia has a Meditarranean climate and the Northern regions of this continent have areas of Rainforest and below that are large areas of savanna grasslands. Tasmania, the island state in the south has large areas of temperature wilderness and steep mountains.
Many parts of Australia have scanty and irregular rainfall. Only where rainfall is plentiful and reliable one can see tall trees are the blue gums of Tasmania, the Big Trees of eastern Victoria, which reach a height of 300 feet. Other tall trees grow along the rainy east coast and many other small trees and plants crowd the forest here, including the ferns and creepers.
The commonest trees of Australia are the eucaliptus, of which there are over 500 kinds.
Some Australian trees and plants produce hard woody fruits and seeds.
Australia has 20,000 species of plants and brilliant wild flowers such as the red and green kangaroo paw. The continent has many species eucalypti or gum trees. Many of the trees lose their bark not leaves and many flowers.
Nature fauna in Australia are protected and managed by state and territorial governments.
The climate of Australia varies greatly. The climate ranges from tropical (monsoonal) in the north to temperate in the south. The tropical region, which includes about 40 percent of the total area of Australia, has only two seasons: a hot, wet season with rains falling mainly in February and March, during which the northern and north-eastern coast have an average annual rainfall of 1524 mm in parts of Queensland overade annual rainfall exceeds 2540 mm.
People of Australia
Australia’s aboriginal inhabitants arrived about 40,000 years ago. Their technical culture depended on wood, bone, and stone tools and weapons, their spiritual and social life was highly complex. Most spoke several languages. Aboriginal population density ranged from one person per square mile along the coast to one person per 35 square miles in the arid interior. Today, tribal aborigines lead a settled traditional life in remote areas of northern, central, and western Australia. For generation, most settlers came from the British Isles, and the people of Australia are still predominatly of British or Irish origin. Since the end of World War II, however, the population has more than doubled; non-European immigration, mostly from the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, has increased significantly since 1960. In 1995-1996, Australia accepted more than 99,000 regular immigrants.
During the 1800s, European setters brought their traditional churches to Australia. At the 1996 Census, Australian religious affiliations were 27% - Catholic, 22% - Anglican, 22% - other Christian denominations and 3% non-Christian religions, with some 25% uncommitted or professing no religion.
On the 10th January, 2001 at 06:37:28 (Canberra time), the resident population of Australia was projected to be 19,272,053.
The world Aborigine is derived from Latin and means “from the beginning”. This is the name given to the native Australians by the Europeans. The first human inhabitants of the Australia were the Aborigines. They are a dark-skinned people belonging to the Australoid group. They may have walked and sailed here from Asia. They gathered fruits, nuts and yam, which they ate. In Melbourne and Sydney, the sparse Aboriginal population includes many militants. The whites – who have little experience of Aboriginal traditions an appealing theoretical alternative to western society’s moneymaking and rule by the clock. And public policy tends to be generous towards Aboriginal causes and claims.
Facts & Figures
|Ethnic groups||Caucasian - 92%, Asian – 7%,
aboriginal and other – 1%
|Birth rate||13.47 births/1,000|
|Death rate||6.89 deaths/1,000|
|Fertility rate||1.82 children/woman|
|Mortality rate||5.26 deaths/1,000 live births|
Australian people accept guests with openness and cordiality. It is just characteristic of their life there.
In Australia, everyone is allowed to visit the building of the State Parliament, for example. Enormous posters invite everyone to visit the local museums of space exploration.
Also surprising is the way the Australian people treat each other. White people go to demonstration to protect the rights of aborigines (who are seldom seen on the streets of big cities) – in general, their total number is about 2% of the population of the continent. People on the train, who are really far from agriculture, gladly welcome clouds as possible rains are a blessing to farmers. The harvest there depends on the amount of precipitation, since Australia is the driest continent in the world.
It’s uncommon to surround a house with a high fence, with the exception of the Prime-Minister’s residence (which is strictly guarded). It is also a tradition to appear with a smile on your face in public, a common thing for Americans and probably to some extent for English people as well. And if you need some help, and then even people whom you don’t know well will be glad to help you without saying too much. ” That’s what we are here for” is the key phrase to understanding Australia.
People live there as if to help and protect each other and maintain the land of their ancestors in its unique and indescribable beauty. Of course, one can speak a lot about the difficulties of living in the southern hemisphere, but to experience it all, one would need live there longer as an ordinary citizen, rather than as a visitor.
Australia townspeople are bright and sunny, full of light and surrounded by the care and warmth of people’s relationships, even if it’s a bit idealized there.
The dry, desert-like plains of the Australian outback cover more than two-thirds of the continent. Much of the region receives less than 250 mm of rainfall a year. Although the rains may come at any time of the year, there are often long periods of drought, which make it difficult for animals to survive.
Many of the animals avoid the heat of the day by staying in their burrows, since it is cooler and damper underground. Some small animals sleep underground right through the hottest summer months. This is called aestivation. Many outback animals can survive with little or no water. Their bodies are adapted to store water from their food and to lose very little water in their urine. A number of animals have long back leas to help them more rapidly and find what little food is available.
There are many animals and birds in Australia:
Koala (length: 80 cm);
Long jumper. Red kangaroo (height: 2m; tail: 1m);
Wild dog. Dingo (height at shoulder: 50 cm; length: up to 90 cm);
High-speed runner emu: (height: 2m);
Huge burrow (height at shoulder: 45cm);
Huge lizard (length including tail: up to 2,4 m);
Spiny coat (length: 50 cm; spines: 6 cm);
Silky killer (length: 3 cm);
Numbat (body length: up to 30 cm; tail: up to 20 cm);
Raggiana’s bird of paradise (body length: up to 95 cm; tail feathers: 50 cm) and many others.
Some Important Dates of Early Australian History
1605-06 First Dutch sighting of the coast
1616 Arrival of Dutch ship Ecndracht at western coast
1642 Abel Tasman’s discovery of Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania)
1688 William Dampier’s landing on north-west coast
1770 Captain Cook’s discovery of New South Wales
1788 Foundation of first settlement (Sydney) by Governor Arthur Philip
1851 Victoria became a separate colony
1851 Discovery of gold in Victoria
1854 Battle at the Eureca Stockade
1859 Queensland became a separate colony
1883 Comletion of railway between Victoria and New South Wales
1889 Comletion of railway between Sydney and Brisbane
1898 William Farrer’s appointment as government wheat experimentalist. New South Wales
1901 Establishment of the federal Commonwealth of Australia
Why is the Year 1901 Important in the History of Australia?
On January1, 1901, the Commonwealth of Australia came into being. Before this, Australia consisted of a number of separate colonies. By the Commonwealth Act of 1900, the colonies became a federation. The formation of the commonwealth marked the beginning of Australia as a full nation.
The History of Australia Day – 26 January
26 January 1788, the historic landing of the First Fleet at Sydney Cove.
26 January 1818, Governor Lachlan Macquarie ordered a 30-gun salute to commemorate the thirtieth anniversary of foundation. He also declared that 26 January be a public holiday.
Until Federation in 1901, 26 January was celebrated only in New South Wales as Anniversary Day. There it commemorated the beginning of European settlement at Sydney Cove. Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania celebrated their separation from the mother colony, New South Wales; South Australia and Western Australia were proud of their independent foundations.
During 1935, Premiers from all States of Australia met together and made an agreement that Australia Day would be 26 January, and that form 1936 an annual public holiday would be declared on the Monday closest to that date. They decided that the agreement that this agreement would remain unchanged for at least the next fifty years.
In 1980, the National Australia Day Committee had promoted Australia Day as a time for celebration and awareness of national pride. In 1980, 30 local community committees held official Australia Day celebrations. By 1982 there were approximately 600 local communities holding celebrations.
The system of government was based on a written constitution approved by the British Parliament and reflected the political traditions of Europe and North America. The Australian government is given the power of low by being elected by a majority, of the people using the secret ballot.
Australia is an independent sovereign nation within the Commonwealth. Queen Elizabeth II is formally Queen of Australia. The representative of the English queen is the formal head government structure.
The Australian Federation has a three-tier, Federal, State, and local, system of government. It is historically based on a two system, the party or coalition of parties with the majority in the House of Representatives forming the government.
The Australian Parliament and government are responsible for all matters of national interest. Six state governments complement activities of the national government on a state level. Parliamentary elections are conducted by a statutory electoral office, which is part of the permanent. Four political parties are represented in the Australian Parliament – the Liberal Party, the Australian Labor party, the National Party of Australia and the Australia Democrats.
The Australian National Flag
The Australian flag is major national symbol, both within Australia and overseas. It belongs to equally to all Australians and anyone in Australia may fly it. The Australian National Flag has a spacious blue background and depicts three symbols: the Commonwealth star, the stars of the Southern Cross and the Union Flag. The Commonwealth star has seven points, one for each state and one for the additional territories.
The Australian Faunal Emblem: the Emu
The emu appears with the kangaroo on Australia’s Coat of Arms. During pre-historic times in Australia there were giant emus called Genyornis.
Australia has a prosperous western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP at the level of the highly industrialized West European countries. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, consumer goods and equipment, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels. The government is pushing for increased exports, so that a downturn in a world commodity prices can have a big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in international markets continues to be severe. The country buys abroad farm equipment, office equipment and other goods.
Australians are world famous for their love of sport, but they are also enthusiastic supporters of the arts and the communications industries.
Australian cultural achievements are becoming well known internationally through the awards gained by films and literature, and the reputation of touring Australian groups.
Government support has been an important factor in developing the arts.
The Australian Chamber Orchestra, established 20 years ago, become a permanent orchestra five years ago and now tours overseas several times a year.
Government-supported television and radio channels play an important part in artistic and cultural development, with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) receiving $515.1 million from the Federal Government in 1994-95 and the Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) $75.7 million.
Aboriginal art was little known and appreciated until recent years.
Indigenous dance and music have been introduced to national and international audiences through Federal Government support.
Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal musicians and combines traditional and modern Aboriginal musical styles, has also proved popular in Australia and overseas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander writes like Sally Morgan and Jack Davis, and the late Kevin Gilbert and Oodgeroo Nunuccal, are well known throughout Australia.
The Federal Government has decided that it will establish a gallery of Aboriginal Australia in Canberra to provide a national perspective on indigenous cultures.
For many thousands years, music has played a very significant part in the life of Australia Aborigines. Song and dance are vital in many rituals and ceremonies, and are often used to dramatize and illustrate a story. The actions of birds and animals are imitated. Children enjoy imitating and learning the dances of their ciders. The word ‘corroboree’ is well known and is often used as the name for an Aboriginal ritual dance.
Pre-school and Child Care
Primary and Secondary Schooling
What makes an Australian different from a Russian?
What do we have in common?
|What makes an Australian different
from a Russian?
|What do we have in common?|
|The Australians must pay for all university education. Australian high schoolchildren can choose many of their classes||In both countries, it is hard to find a good job without a high school diploma. Both countries have both public and private schools.|
|Australian people have much more litter and car exhaust than Russian people do.||Russia and Australia both have big pollution problems.|
Do you want to live in Australia?
|1. Do you like Australia? And why?||1. Yes, I do. I like Australia because it is a very beautiful country and there are many different people there.|
|2. What does Australia mean for you?||2. I want to live in Australia because it is very hot there in December (December is a summer month). If I lived in Australia, I would be very rich and I would have a black car.|
|3. What do you like to do in Australia?||3. For me Australia is a free way of modern life. It is a great chance of education.|
|4. What do you like to have there?||4. I would like to have a very big house with a blue swimming pool and a green garden.|
Have you got acquainted with Australia?