В настоящее время основной целью обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе признается развитие способности учащихся использовать изучаемый язык как инструмент общения в диалоге культур и цивилизаций. Межкультурное общение - процесс двусторонний. В ходе диалога культур учащийся проникает в культуры других народов, а, с другой стороны, глубже постигает культуру родной страны, отраженную как в зеркале, в культуре страны изучаемого языка. Межнациональные, межкультурные контакты возможны лишь при сохранении собственной языковой и этнической самоидентификации. На уроках создаются условия для проявления и развития творческих способностей, для возникновения внутренней мотивации и устойчивого интереса к изучаемому предмету. Учащимся дается возможность использовать свой социальный опыт. Применяемые на уроке технологии, позволяют снять с учащихся напряжение, создают благоприятную комфортную обстановку, помогают ребятам изменить отношение к себе и другим.
“A foreign country teaches you to love your own.
Go and marvel at foreigners and return with a Russian heart”
Цели урока: формирование культурно-страноведческой компетенции; ознакомление учащихся с выдающимися деятелями русской науки и культуры, эмигрировавших в США и работавших там.
Задачи урока: активизация лексики в новых условиях, на новом уровне, развитие умений и навыков устной речи, развитие умений вести диалог на заданную тему, воспринимать и понимать на слух видео сюжет.
Воспитательные цели: воспитание чувства национальной гордости, патриотизма и толерантного отношения к чужому мнению.
Развивающие задачи: развитие компаративных и аналитических умений учеников.
Оснащение урока: карта США с флажками, видеокассета с “Интервью с участником программы обмена студентами”, аудиокассета с записями произведений Рахманинова, Стравинского.
Ход учебного занятия:
Students are listening to a melody.( “Once upon a time in America”)
T.: Do you know what melody it is?
P1: If I am not mistaken, it’s “Once upon a time in America” from the famous old American film with the same title.
T.: You’re right. By the way, do you guess why we’re listening to the melody.
P2: To my mind, we’re going on our talk about the USA.
T.: Well, it’s right in some way. Dear friends, can you say:what the USA is? Why so many people all over the world know its history, culture and traditions?
P3: I think, that many people from different countries who had come there escaping from their kings or church brought their culture and traditions with them.
P4:But as for me, they all enriched America and made it a great country.
T.:Can you easily answer how many nationalities live in the USA nowadays?
P5: I guess, it would be rather difficult. But we know that there are a lot of the Russians in the USA.
T.: Well, now we’ve come up to our topic “Russian people in America”. We’re going to get more information about our countrymen who lived and worked in the USA, who made great contribution into the life of American society, to discuss a very important problem of emigrating to the USA. Let’s start with the first steps of Russian exploration and first relations between our countries.
T.: Now I offer you to read the text and do some tasks.Then you are going to exchange your sheets to check your answers. You have eight minutes for it.
Russian People in America.
The past history gives many examples of dialogue and cooperation
between Russia and the USA. Russia supported America as far back as the War of
Independence(1779-1783). During the Crimean War(1853-1856) American doctors worked in
Sebastopol. Americans helped to industrialise our country in the twenties. And in the
Second World War they fought against fascism.
The history of the first Russian settlements on the USA territory, the first cultural exchanges of the two nations is very interesting.
It was in 1741 that first Russian explorers who travelled across Siberia to the east set foot on the land of Alaska. Novo-Arkhangelsk became the capital of “Russian America”. This was the name of Alaska till 1867 when it was sold to the United States by the tsar's government. This was also the name of some Russians settlements in the north of California and the Aleutian Islands.
History says that the Russians got on very well with the Aleutians in Alaska and with the Indians in California. Even now some Alaskian people have Russian names. And some of the Indians tribes in the north of California have Russian words in their language.
Russian people left there memories of themselves.
Aleutian - алеут, tsar's - царский, tribes - племена.
Task One: Read the following sentences and match them according to the correct letters below the numbers.
1. Russia supported America…
2. The first cultural exchanges of two nations…
3. The first Russian explorers…
4. Alaska was also the name…
5. Some of the Indian tribes in the north of California…
a)…set foot on the land of Alaska.
b)…of some Russian settlements in the north of California.
c)…are very interesting.
d)…have Russian words in their language.
e)…far back as the War of Independence.
Task Two: Put the sentences in the right order:
1. American doctors worked in Sebastopol during the Crimean War.
2. History says that the Russans got on very well with the Aleutians.
3. It was the eighteenth century that the first Russian explorers set foot on the land of Alaska.
4. Russia supported America during the War of Independence.
5. The Tsarist government sold Alaska to the USA.
Task Three: Put “+” if the sentence is true and “-” if the sentence is false.
1. The first Russian settlements on the US territory were set in the
2. Novo-Arkhangelsk became the capital of Alaska.
3. Alaska was the name of the land in the far north of the American continent.
4. Alaska was sold to the United States by the tsarist government.
5. Russian people left their memories of themselves.
III. Suggestion for writing.
Make a free traslation of the text.
Немало на американской карте русских названий. Одна лишь Москва встречается более 10 раз. В большинстве случаев они появились после 1812 года. Тогда же возникло и Бородино в штате Нью-Йорк. Во время Крымской войны в США появились сразу пять или шесть Севастополей. В конце прошлого века во Флориде после строительства железной дороги возник поселок Сент-Питерсберг. Есть в Америке девять Одесс. А в калифорнийской пустыне есть полустанок Сибирь.
IV. Prepared problem task.
Students had to find out interesting information about outstanding Russian people who made great contribution in the world heritage.
T.: Unfortunately, many of us don’t know about our famous countrymen who had left our country under different circumstances. Not long ago we couldn’t accept the fact that the Russian emigration has been existing as an independent community. We had even to blame them. But changes in our society allowed us to open new pages in Russian history. While listening to your classmates you are going to make a scheme or a table to show in what field of our life they worked.
In 18th century the Russian Government sent Vitus Bering to explore the lands behind Russia. During of his voyages Bering discovered the strait that separated North America from Asia. It is now named after the discoverer. On a later voyage Bering saw the mainland of North America. This discovery, made in 1741, gave Russia its right to Alaska. Bering died before he could take good news back to Russia. But Alexei Chirikov and some other men of Bering’s expedition came back. The Russians explored the North American continent as far north as the Arctic Ocean. Others made settlements or built trading posts.
GRIGORY IVANOVICH SHELIKHOV
The first Russian settlement in North America appeared in 1784. Two Russian ships “Three saints” and “Saint Simon and Ann Prophetess” came up to the coast of Alaska. The head of the expedition was the Russian merchant Grigory Ivanovich Shelikhov. He founded one of the permanent trade-and-industrial company. Russian people taught the Aleutians how to build warm wooden houses, the advantages of their way of life (clothes, food, gardening). Shelikhov made everything to teach the native boys, who preferred to live with the Russians. Shelikhov understood the importance of the exploration of the north-western America. He sent two groups of explorers to investigate the southern coast of Alaska And when in 1786 Shelikhov left their land Cadyak there were already 183 Russian settlements.
ALEXANDER ANDREEVICH BARANOV
In 1790 Alexander Andreevich Baranov who had signed the treaty with Grigory Shelikhov, became the first governor of “Russian America”. Baranov continued the exploration of Alaska. One of the explorers Dmitri Bocharov discovered the shortest way across the Alaska – along the river Agagic and the lake, which was named after him. In fact, Baranov got married with the Indian girl, who was the daughter of their leader and had three children. He always tried to spread the Russian influence to the south up to the Spanish colonies. In 1803 –1804 Baranov sent the Russian fleet of 20 boats to the Saint-Diego Bay. In 1806 the navigators repeated their voyage and discovered the Rumyantsev (Bodega) Bay to the north west of Saint - Francisco Bay. And in 1811 they founded the Fort Ross.
We can’t hold back the missionary work of Ivan Veniaminov. He was the
priest, who had compiled the Russian- Aleutian dictionary and the first Aleutian grammar
and alphabet. Bishop Inokenty was known as the Christian missionary among the Aleutians.
History says that the Russian got on very well with the Aleutians in Alaska and with Indians in California. Even now some Alaskan people have Russians names. And some of them Indians tribes in the north of California have Russian words in their language.
Russian people left there memories of themselves.
Nikolai Rezanov (1764-1807) was one of Russia’s leading voyagers and
statesmen. He helped to found the Russian-American trading company. He came from a family
of improverished gentry in the Smolensk gubernia and did military service as a lieutenant
in the Life-Guards of the Izmailovsky regiment. Later he served as chief secretary of
civilian affairs and director of the Russian-America Company. In 1806 he undertook a
journey to California where he helped to promote the establishment of commercial ties
between the Russian-American Company and Spanish colonists.
Rezanov wanted to devote his life to his country. Extinguished existence in Russia made Rezanov search for new lands for Russian people, an eternal dream of a free world. Though he understood quite well that his plans were utopian and it would be almost impossible to overcome all the hardships he thought of good fortune, he believed in “avos”. That is why he asked His Imperior Majesty Alexander I for permission to travel. Refuses crushed his will. In despair and depression Rezanov prayed. He asked Holy Mother for protection. At the same time he confessed that he saw the icon not as the Queen of Heaven, but as a woman with eyes like black cherries, a gently woman who needed defense. Suddenly radiant light from the icon shines above Rezanov, and he heard Her voice. After a rough passage over the Pacific Ocean Rezanov landed in a Spanish settlement near the monastery belonging to the order of St. Francis of Jose de Alssisi. The Russians got rather nostile greeting by Jose de Arguello, the Governer of San Francisco, who planned a ball in this house in honor of his sixteen-year-old daughter Conception de Arguello. At the ball Rezanov was introdused to Conchita. He loved her.
The Russian-American Company’s commercial ties went to rack and ruin. Scandal and rumors caused by Rezanov’s dishonorable deed, made the Russian return to their ships and leave San Francisco. In his letter to Rumyantsev Rezanov wrote that his dreams of bright future for new Russians colonies in America had confronted reality and he hoped only to return the sails and the sailors home to Russia.
After a secret betrothal ceremony Rezanov started his trip home. In Siberia near Krasnoyarsk he caught cold and died. The story of his life became the base for the composing rock opera “Juno” and “Avos” by Alexey Rybnicov in 1979. The “Lenkom” theatre has this opera in its program nowadays.
IGOR IVANOVICH SIKORSKY.
The name of Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky is one of famous Russian names. He was a great aircraft desinger. He was born in Kiev. In 1912-1917 he worked as a constructor of the aircraft department in the Russian-Baltic factory in St.Petersburg. In 1913 for the first time in the world the planes “The Russian knight” and “Il’ya Muroments” were constructed by Sikorsky. Among the planes consructed by Sicorsky were aircraft-monoplanes, fighters and others. In 1919 he emigrated to the USA where he continued to desing, especialy in the sphere of helicopters. He became the joint owner of the aircraft construction firm, which is called “Westland- Sikorsky”.
VLADIMIR KOZMITCH ZVORYKIN.
In 1998 we celebrated the 110-th anniversary of the man who stood at the very beginning of the whole society, changing our phycology, culture and way of life. This man is our Vladimir Kozmitch Zvorykin and his invention was called television. In 1906 Vladimir entered the Technological University in St. Petersburg. In 1912 Vladimir Zvorykin went abroad to continue his education. But in 1914 he was mobilized and he was in the army till 1918. His desire to devote himself to science made him leave Russia for the USA. Then he was invited to Moscow and Leningrad and made a report for Russian scientists. Living in the USA Zvorykin had never forgotten about his Motherland and he did everything to help his country. He was the initiator fifth-year cooperation treaty between our countries: Radio industry of the USSR and American Radio corporation RCA. According this treaty many soviet scientific workers from Russia went to the USA to work on their enterprises. In 1940-1941 Zvorykin invented and created the first examples of an electronic microscope. He also worked over the radar and computing methods of forecasting the weather, reading device for the blind. In 1954-1962 Zvorykin was the chief of the Medical department of the Rockfeller’s Centre in New York. He was the member of the American Academy of Art, the Honored member of many scientific societies. In 1978 his name was included in the “Russian-American Gallery of Glory” under the number one, and he was awarded the diploma of the “Honored Russian American”.
VLADIMIR VLADIMIROVICH NABOKOV (1899 - 1977).
Nabokov Vladimir in full Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov, Russia – born American novelist and critic, the foremost of the post – 1917 emigrant authors. He was born on the 2-nd of July in 1899 in an old aristocratic family. His father was a leader of the pre-Revolutionary liberal Constitutional Democratic Party in Russia and was the author of numerous books and articles on criminal law and politics. Leaving Russia in 1919 he and his family made their way to England, and he attended Trinity College, Cambridge. He graduated with first-class honors in 1922. While still in England he continued to write poetry, mainly in Russian, but also in English. Between 1922 and 1940 Nabokov lived in Germany and France. His first short story had already been published in Berlin in 1924. During his years of European emigration, Nabokov lived in a state of happy and continual povetry. All of his Russian novels were published in very small editions in Berlin and Paris. During the period in which he wrote his first eight novels, he made his living in Berlin and later in Paris by giving lessons in tennis, Russian and English. After great wealth came to him with the success of “Lolita” and the subsequent interest in his previous work. The subject matter of Nabokov’s novels is principally the problem os art itself presented in varios figurative disguises. Nabokov’s major critical works are an irrevent book about Nikolay Gogol (1944) and a monumental four-volume translation of, and commentary on, Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin (1964). As Nabokov’s reputation varies greatly from country. Until 1986 he was not published in the Soviet Union, not only because he was a “White Russian emigrant” (he became a U.S. citizen in 1945) but also because he practiced “literary snobbism”. Nabokov did not again draw so heavily upon his personal experience as he had in Mashenka until his episodic novel about an emigrant professor of entomology in the United States, Phin (1957), which it to some extent based on his experiences while teaching (1948-1958) Russian and European literature at Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. His reputation after 1940, when he changed from Russian to English after emigrфting to the United States, mounted steadily until the 1970s, when he was acclimed by a leading literary critic as “king over that battered mass society called contemporary fiction”. Vladimir Nabokov died July 2, 1977, Montreal, Switzerland.
SERGEY VASILYEVICH RAKHMANINOV(1873 - 1943).
S.V.Rakhmaninov was born in settlement Onega near Novgorod. When he was four the boy began to study music and at the age of nine he entered St.Petersburg Conservatory. Then his parents took him to Moscow Conservatory to an eminent pianist N.S.Zverev. At the age of eighteen Rakhmaninov brightly finished his studying the piano. He composed a lot of music works of all kinds, operas and choral works. He was a talented conductor. After the October revolution Rakhmaninov left Russia and went away to America. In 1943 he helped his Motherland gathering money for the Russian army. He always loved Russia and was a very devoted person.
IGOR FYODOROVICH STRAVINSKY(1882 - 1971).
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky was born in 1882 on the 5th of June in Orienbaum. He was son of famous opera singer. Igor Stravinsky began to play the piano when he was nine years old. At the same time Stravinsky studied on the faculty of law in the St.Petersburg University. In 1938 he moved to the USA, but he became an American citizen in1945. There Stravinsky had his own orchestra. He conducted Tchaikovsky’s and Glinka’s musical compositions. Being a wonderful conductor and composer, he also wrote works of literature. Most of them are about his own life. Stravinsky died in 1971 in New York. He made an enormous contribution to world music.
GEORGE MILITIONOVICH BALANCHINE(1904 - 1975).
George Balanchine’s real name was George Militionovich Balanchivadze. He was born in 1904 in St.Petersburg in a family of the famous composer Balanchivadze. In 1914-1921 he studied in Mariinsky theatre. In 1923 he took part in the ballet for the first time. But in 1924 George had to emigrate abroad. In 1925-1929 he worked in the Russian ballet of Diagle in Paris. Then Balanchine went to live in the USA. In 1933 George Balanchne organized “The American Ballet School”, which gave the birth to the New York City Ballet. Balanchine is considered to be the founder of the American Ballet. He made a great contribution in the world ballet.
T.: The contribution of Russian people into the world culture can hardly be overestimated. Young generation must know about them, as they are very important part of our history.
V. Listening comprehension.
Students are listening to the interview with the student, former participant of Students’ Exchange program. They have to answer the following questions:
- What was the aim of his journey?
- What was the most difficult there?
- Why did he take part in this program?
Students are divided into two groups.They are going to discuss and write down all PRO’s and CON’s of leaving Russia for perminant residence to the USA.
1. The USA is the country of progressive science and technology.
2. It’s easier to earn money, to catch the luck.
3. There is more freedom there.
1.Russia is a country with old history and traditions, great science.
2.You can earn money in your country if you are not a coach patato.
3.Recently we have more chance to enlarge our experiences.
Russian people in America.
Contribute, enrich, value.
No person can exist without its past.
VIII. Reflection work.
Students are to tick if they took part in that kind of work.
I took part in …
II. Reading task.
III. Written work.
IV.Prepared problem task.
V. Listening comprehension.