ЦЕЛЬ УРОКА: Ознакомить учащихся с краткой характеристикой периодов в антологии английской литературы. Решить проблемный вопрос: что важнее проза или поэзия?
-практиковать учащихся в монологической и диалогической речи;
-тренировать учащихся с полным пониманием информации;
-развивать навыки и умения в чтении, аудировании, декламировании и разговоре, ставя перед учениками коммуникативные задачи;
-расширять лексический запас и запас идиоматических выражений.
воспитывать ощущение прекрасного;
прививать любовь к литературе;
воспитывать уважение к другим народам;
поддерживать интерес к английскому языку.
Развивать навыки монологической и диалогической речи, мировоззрение, внимание, логическое мышление, объем слуховой памяти, речевой слух.
МЕТОДЫ И ФОРМЫ РАБОТЫ: аудирование, чтение, письмо, декламирование, работа в парах (группах), упражнения на основе коммуникативных задач, упражнения-соревнования.
ПОВТОРЕНИЕ: Стихотворения известных поэтов, сочинения известных писателей (эпизоды), биографии известных английских поэтов и писателей.
НАГЛЯДНОСТЬ: выставка книг, предметные карточки, раздаточный материал.
1. Организационный момент.
2. Речевая зарядка.
3. Объявление темы и цели урока:
Imagine a traveller in a foreign land without maps or guidebooks. So many enjoyable and worthwhile sights would be missed entirely or only partially appreciated. For these reasons wise travellers rely on the advice and guidance of those who have travelled those lands before.
LITERATURE is a kind of traveller's guide through lands you have not explored. In fact the journey you are about to begin will take you through time as well. Along the way you will encounter fiction, poetry, drama and nonfiction. So, that's why we are going to have an excursion through English Literature and besides we'll try to solve a problem: What is the most important in literature: prose or poetry.
4. Вопросы учителя к ученикам:
– How do you think, what is literature ?
Teacher's version: According to encyclopedia Literature is everything that has ever been written . It is one of the fine art. But according to our soul Literature is beauty and feelings, smiles and tears, joy and sorrow, and heroism and history and, and, and…
– How many periods are there in English Literature?
– Will you call them?
1. The Anglo-Saxon Period.
2.The Medieval Period.
3. The Elizabethan Age.
4. The Seventeenth Century.
5. The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century.
6. The Romantic Age
7. The Victorian Age
8. The Twentieth Century
Коммуникативное упражнение, которое базируются на характеристике периодов. Ученики получают раздаточные карточки с описанием определенного периода английской литературы. Каждой паре учеников – карточки с описанием разных периодов. Ученики должны прочитать текст, понять и обсудить в парах. После этого в хронологическом порядке учащиеся делятся информацией с целой группой. При этом, группа может задавать им вопросы, на которые они должны отвечать.
6. Упражнение – игра (для закрепления материала). Каждой группе даются карточки с названиями периодов и отдельно с перечнем авторов и названиями их произведений, которые относятся к определенному периоду. Ученики должны подобрать к каждому периоду соответствующую карточку с авторами и названиями их произведений. При этом, решение этой проблемы происходит на английском языке. Побеждает тот, кто первым выполнит задание.
7. Вопросы учителя к ученикам:
You saw that the anthology of English literature consists of many poets and writers.
– What people are called writers ? What people are called poets ?
– What are the major forms of literary expression?
Predictable answer: prose and poetry.
8. Коммуникативное упражнение на основе ситуативной речи. Робота в группах ( 2 группы). Одна группа отстаивает предпочтения прозы, другая - поэзии (в форме диспута). Перед этим они получают раздаточные карточки с определением “прозы” и “поэзии” (выдержки из "World Book Encyclopedia" V.I 5. and "Encyclopedia of Knowledge" VI 5). Они должны прочитать эти определения, понять и обсудить (на английском языке). Потом одна группа доказывает другой преимущества прозы и поэзии.
9. Упражнение-игра. Угадай автора. Каждый ученик группы, в порядке очереди, декламирует стих, или кратко рассказывает сюжет произведения, а также биографию поэта или писателя, не называя его имени. Ученик противоположной группы должен угадать автора. Базируется на знании учеников английской поэзии, прозы и биографии авторов, умении декламировать стихи и грамотно, правильно передавать содержание произведения.
10. Ученики декламируют собственные стихи, эссе, истории на английском языке, а также собственные переводы известных произведений.
11. ВЫВОД: ученики делают вывод с помощью учителя. So we revised the anthology of English Literature and the main authors and their masterpieces. We are convinced of the importance both: prose and poetry in literature. It won't be complete without one of these components. And of course we enjoyed listening beautiful English poetry and the plots of prose and of course children's creations.
12. Домашнее задание: написать сочинение на тему: "If l were a poet(writer) I should write about..."
1 ."English and Western Literature" MacMillan Literature Series.
2. " The Northon Anthology of English Literature" M.H Abrams; General Edition.
3. "The World Book Encyclopedia" V.I 5,12.
4. " The Encyclopedia of Knowledge" V.I 5,19.
THE SEVENTENTH CENTURY.
In England the Seventeenth cebtury was a time of political and religious turmoil punctuated with violence that surprised and shocked England's neighbours on the Continent.
Poetry again dominates the literatureofthe early seventeenth century. John Donne and his followers wrote what would later be called metaphisical poetry - complex, highly intellectual verse filled with intricate and far -feched mataphors. Ben Jonson , the forerunner of English neoclassicism, and bis disciples, called the Son of Ben , were responsable for a second new, style of poetry. They wrote in a more conservative , restrained fashion and on more limited subjects than the metaphysical poets. Some of the sons of Ben are known as Cavaliers because their verses often take the form of witty, elegent, and gentlemanly compliments or trifles.
A great poet of the century, John Milton had a style of his own, and he remained outside both Donne's and Jonson's influence. His epic "Paradise Lost" , a work of over ten thousand lines , takes its plays in wesetm literature along with Homer's "Odyssey" and "Illiad".
Rather early seventeenth century theater saw satirical comedies be Ben Jonson, tragicomedies , and kind of melodrama. As the terma satiric comedy, tragicomedy , and comedy of manners suggest, comedy was becoming more sophisticated, less dependent upon stock situations - like mistaken identity. The manners of the English upper class became the source of situations and of humor. Later the Restoration comedy fell into disfavor. Playwrights turned to sentimental comedy, in which the heroine attempts to reform the hero.
Generally spaeking, the prose of the seventeenth century was not used for imaginative literature. It was nonefiction-essays, histories, works about religious and science, and works reflecting a new interest in what was going on. Toward the end of the century , essays on literary criticism began to appear , and criticism became a kind of literature in itself.
The fiction exception mentioned above is John Bunyan's " Pilgrim's Progress". This is, in fact, a long prose work in which imaginary characters tell a story.
Some writers created prose for the growing bureaucracy , someproduced prose to the spirit of sgientific inquiry, some relaid on prose to persuade wide audiences to adopt certain religious and political convictions. And yet other writers turned to prose for their own eccntric reasons: Robert Burton wrote a brilliant, gloomy work called "The Anatomy of Melancholy"
The development of more modern - sounding prose reminds us that the Seventeenth century was in all ways a period of continuing exploration and experimentation- in politics, in religion, in science, and in literature.
THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.
The Glorious Revolution that brought William and Mary to England in 1688 had put limitations on the monarchy that would lead , over the centuries , to real democracy.
Eighteenth-century literature reflects the ideas and interests of the Age of Reason , the Age of Classicism, the Age of Elegance.Works show a sense of order and moderation; writers display their wit but not their heart and soul. Prose arguments are calm and logical; poems are carefully structured and often make classical allusions.
Eigteenth-century England is often called the Augustan Age , a reference to the prosperous Rome of Emperor Augustan, when great literature also thrived. Augustan literature is sometimes divided into two periods , each named for its most influential man of letters- the Age of Popoe and, after 1750, the Age ofJohnson.
Pope potrays this Classical -or Neoclassical- thinking is long poems such as Essay on Man", while in "The Rape of the lock" he mocks the foibles of "elegant" society. Pope's fellow Jonathan Swift wrote satire with a sharper edge: "Gulliver's Travels". He is also famous for satiric poems and essays.
Samual Johnson was the great man of letters. He is noted not only for what he wrote- the first great English Dictionary , among other things -but for what he believed and said. His witty ideas are captured by his friend James Boswell in "The Life of Samual Johnson", the first modem biography in England. In addition to Pope and Swift, talented Augustan poets include Matthew Prior, John Gay, Oliver Goldthmis and William Cowper.
Most eihgteenth century drama continues the traditions of Restoration playwrights. Sentimental tragedies were popular . They include John Gay's "Beggar's Opera" , A play with ballads, Oliver Goldsmith's "She Stoops to Conquer" and others.
The greatest achievements of Augustan literature were not in poetry or drama , but in prose. The age gave us England's first literary magazines,"The Tatler" and "The Spectatoe". They were produced by Joseph Addison and Richard Steel.
However, no prose acheivement can outshine the development of the long fictional prose work known as the NOVEL. Danial Defoe's "Robinsn Crusoe" was the first true novel. Popular types of early novels include the picaresque novel , a series of episodes about a such as Richardson's "Clarissa", the gothic novel, pioneered in England by Horace Walpole, and the novel of manners, witty society tales such as those by Fanny Bumey and Maria Edgeworth. So the novel began to take shape in the eighteenth century.
THE ANGLO-SAXON PERIOD.
English literature began as oral, not written, literature, with songs and poems celebrating heroes. These poems were passed on by minstrels, or scorps, who composed maany poems that praised Anglo-Saxon ideals such as: valor, honorand loyality to one's loir.
Through the songs of the scorps, the major battles and the feats of the tribe's heroes and kings were recited and remembered. Their poems often reflected the grim, war - ridden lives of the Anglo-Saxon people.
The earliest English story-poem to come down to us is about a hero called Beowolf. "Beowolf was composed about 700 by an unknown minstrels.It was composed in Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, a dialect of Germanic origin that is the ancestor of our present-day English and was brought to Britain by the Anglo-Saxons.
"Beowolf is an example of an epic poem about the achivements of a hero, often a national heroic figure.
Few of the othe poems of this period have survived. They were composed by monks in monasteries.
Written literature didn't exist in the British Isles until about the year 700.It first comes to our attention in the work of the most famous of the Anglo-Saxon monks Venerable Bede, authoe of "Ecclesiastical History of the English People".It was written in Latin.
The first notable written literature actually comosed in Old English came almost two centuries later when the remarkable Anglo-Saxon King Alfred the Great wrote his "Anglo-Saxon Chronicles", also a history, in the year 892.
The social organization, laws, and culture that he introduced ar e still evident in English culture today.
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD.
In England the Medieval Period, also called the Middle Ages, began in a year that has become famose-1066. in that year the Normans, who had settled in what is now western France, defeated the Anglo-Saxons as the Battle of Hastings and earned for their leader the title William the Conqueror. Now England has a Norman king. STORYTELLING: Althouhg printing was now available, it would be centures before storytelling would take the form of novels. Nevertheless, the seeds of the novel and short story find rich ground in this period. Geoffrey Chaucer told short stories in verse, using a bright, new kind of English poetry influenced by European models as well as hewed from his own genuis.Thanks to Thomas Malory , the great English literary legend of King Arthur was printed in a version heavily influenced by the romantic notions of French storytellers.
The folk ballads are also a form of storytelling, although, unlike the writings of Chaucer and Malory , they were still composed orally. These ballads were not the work of professional poets - minstrels who performed for the entertainment of courts - but rather stories sung by common people gathering among friends and family in their cottages in the evening. These ballads contain storytelling techniques that, centures later, would be used by novelists.
DRAMA: Drama is a form of storytelling that seesms to have a life of its own. The idea of telling a story by acting it out seems to be a very ancient one.
Drama as public entertainment began in England in th Mdievel Period as religious ritual, in the form of mystery plays, or miracle plays, as they are usually called. The miracle play was developed by the Church in an attempt to instruct the literature in the miraculous stories.
The miracle play was followed by a somewhat different- the morality play, in which actors plated the roles of virtues and vices-patience, greed and so on. The most significan aspect of the morality play was that the conflict between the virtue and vice.
THE VICTORIAN AGE.
Queen Victoria was only eighteen when she ascended the throne, and she ruled not only the world's most powerful nation but also an empire extending to Canada, Australia and India, and parts of Afrca.
William Wordsworth became Queen Vctiria's poet, writing for state ocasions. At that time such poets as Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Robert Browning and his wife Elizabeth Barrett Browning were famouse -positive poets for a positive time. Other original pioetic geniuse oft he period include Matthew Arnold, Gerard Hopkins, Dante Rossetti- a poet and a painter, was at the center of a group that caaled t hemselves the Pre-Raphaelites.
Drama did not thrive during the Victorian Age. Tennyson and Browning tried to create poetic dramas. The high point of theatrical enjoyment was a series of light comic operas by William Gilbert, and Arthur sullivan.
A highly imaginative masterpiece of the Victorian Age was written as achildren's story. Charles Dodgson(Lewis Carrol) wrote "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland". Thomas Macaulay published his five-volume " History ofE ngland".
One innovation of Victorian novelists was Realism, which presented a detailed portrait of life in nineteenth-century England. Among the popular novelists is Charles Dickens, whose works combined social criticism with comedy. William Thackeray was a satirist of the morality and the manners of English middle class. Today many of the novels by Thomas Hardy, Arthur Conan Doyle, Bram Stoker are still read and enjoyed, and they also provide us with much of our knoledge of life and thought during the age of Queen Victoria.
THE ROMANTIC AGE.
The intellectuals who lived from 1798 to about 1837 knew there was something unique and rdamatic about their times, even if no one officially named the period of the Romantic Age until much later in the 1800s.
The literary movement called Romanticism represented the renewal of progressive thought and emotion.The Romantic Age in English literature begins in 1798 with the publication of "Lyrical Ballads", the product of a great creative collaboration between the poets William Wordsworth and Samual Tailor Coleridge. With respect to poetic form, they advocated using natural, ordinary speech over the formal, stylized diction of the 1700s.The Romantic poets regarded nature in a fresh light, paid greater attantion to the works of Shakespeare, Spenser and Milton .
The essence of the English Romantic Age is contained in the works of five poets- Wordsworth and Coleridge constituting the so-called first generation of Romantic poets, and Percy Bysshe Shelley, Lord Byron, and John Keats composing the second generation.
Drama did not flourish diring the Romantic Age. Still, some of the Romantic poets wrote so-called closet drama, poetic drama to be read rather than produced. Among the better known plays of this type was Shelley's tragedy "The Cenci", Byron's "Manfred" and Coleridge's "Remorse".
The gothic novel became increasingly popular during the Romantic Age. The most famous novel published during this time was "Frankenstein" , written by Mary Shelley.
Two of the most popular and respected novelists in English literature were Sir. Walter Scott, wrote novels of adventure, and Jane Austen.
Walter Scott is considered to be a father of the historical novel. Reflecting the Romantic interest in the past, he set manny of his novels in England and Scotland of old.
Jane Austen novels were different from Scott's . Her plots concerned domestic situations, with sensitivity and manners dominant. Her most famouse novel is "Pride and Prejudice". Realistic in tone, graceful and deliberately decorouse in the fashion of the novel ofmanneras.
When Henry the VII , a Tudor, became king of England in 1485, he was starting a new royal line. His defeat of Richard III and his mattiage to a member of the House of York had ended the civil war known as the Wars of the Roses, and he could perhaps predict the time of peace and progress . Luck, wisdom, and monumental forces were at work to produce the golden age that was to come to England by the late 1500s.Beginning in Italy the Renaissance was a period that saw reborn in Europe the interest in science, art and all learning.All this flurry and creativity made its way to the court of Elizabeth I.
The Elizabethan Age is an age of poetry. It was the golden age of Shakespeare. One new fact about the poets and writers is that almost all of them saw the writing of literature as thier primary work in life.The form of poetry and drama was changed : unlike the long storytelling poems of the Middle Ages , lyric poetry- poetry dealing with the emotions of the poet- was short, intricate , intellectual, and rigorous in form. The sonnet, was a popular form, and love was a popular topic.
The poetic drama was also very different. The meeting of poetry and drama in English literature - in plays of William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlower, John Lyiy, Ben Jonson and John Ddryden was glorious.Drama, poetic had obviously developed in many ways.
Ralph Roister Doister was the first true comedyof the period. It was written by Nicholas Udall.
These vearrs saw a happy combination of the great literary accomplishment of abcient Greece and Rome , the soaring poetry of Elizabethan England , the young professional playwrights, and a new, cheering, theater-going public.
THE TWENTIETH CENTURY.
While the empire was shrinking, Britain- now officially known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland- made great changes affecting the everyday life of English men, women and children.
Modern literature is characterized by great differences fromrfi the past in both form and content. Writers were creating a new way of seeing the world of expressing feelings about it. The deveelopment of psychology brought psychological realism into literature. The subject matter of literature chonged too. With the shocks of the wars technological advances and great social fredom writers realised that they should write aboout anythig.
W.H. Auden, Stephen Spender and Luuis MacNeice important poets of the 1930- suggested that the wodrld could be improved . After decades of innovation , poets since World War II have been free to develop in many different directions.As a result, contemporary poetry ranges from Thorn Gunn's use ofnonpoetic language ans subject matter to Ted Hughes's fascination with animals, from Charles Tomlinson's abstract images to Geoffrey Hill's new uses of myths.
Drama in modern Britain strives. Several major playwrights ( William Yeats, John Singe, Bernard Shaw, Eliot, Harold Pinter) an dtheatrical movements , many accomplished actors and innovative directors have established Britaain's theatres as models for the world.
Most of the greatast English writers in this century were novelists:
Virginia Woolf"Mrs. Dallowat", Josef Conrad "Lord Jim". Woolf ,Conrad and Lawrence explored new territory for fiction.In this respect no writer can match Irish novelis James Joyce and his "Ulysses".
Foster, Galsworthy, Aldous Huxley, Ford, Snow, Graham Green produced short stories.
In the space age the world seems to be smaller place . Nevertheless literaturew remains a malor source of understanding and entertainment. People continue to look to British literature for a glorious tradition that is still growing and sseking new directions.
Poetry is a type of literature in which the sound and meaning of language are combined to create ideas and feelings. The first part of “Break, Break, Break”, a poem by the English poet Lord Tennyson that was first published in 1842, helps show how poetry does this:
Break, break, break,
On thy cild grey stones, O Sea!
And I would that my tongue could utter
The thoughts that arise in me.
In these four lines Tennyson reflects on the conection between the sea and himself. The sea breaks upon the rocks much as the poet’s thoughts seem to break upon his tongue before he can explain how he feels. This connection between the sea and the poet is reinforced by the fact that “Sea” rhymes with “me”. In addition, the two lines about the sea and the two lines about the poet have the same three – beat rhythm. Tennyson could have directly stated how he felt by something like:”I wish I could tell you how rotten I feel today”. By using poetry, however, Tennyson helped his readersboth understand and feel how he felt.
Prose is the language of everyday speech and writing. It is also one of the two major forms of literary expression. The other is poetry. Letters and newspapers and magazine articles are written in prose. So are biographies, essays, histories, novels, and a majority of plays. Most prose, unlike much poetry, has no regular metre. Prose also lacks rhythm, which is feature of many poems. However, prose writers often use such poetic devices alliteration, and some writers compose highly rhythmical prose. In many cases, a reader cannot clearly distinguished between prose and poetry.
Prose style range from simple to complex. For hundreds of years, writers and literary critics have argued about the ideal prose style. For examle, Francis Bacon, an English author of the early 1600’s , favoureda simple, clear, straightforward style of writing. He composed short sentences with few adjectives. On the other hand, Sir Thomas Browne, an English author of the mid – 1600’s, preferred to use a richer, more elegant prose style. He wrote graceful, rhythmic sentences that sounded poetic.
THE ANTHOLOGY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE.
Epic poetry "Beowulf, Bede "EcclesiastialHistory of the Enlglish Peo-ple; lyric poetry.
Major authors and work expended: Geoffrey Chauser, with a new Cantrbury Tale, Piers Plowman, with Passus 18, Sir Thomas Malory, with more of the Morte Darthur. New authors arc Bede and the spirited Margery Kempe, while The York Play of the Crucifixion joins our plays.
The major authors especially strengthened: Sir Philip Sidney ,with many new Astrophil and Stella sonnets, central additions to A Defence ofPo-esy and passages from the Arcadia; Fdmund Spenser, with notably, the essential cantos of The Faerie Queene, Book 3. All the great poets, from Sir Thomas Wyatt to Thomas Campion, are represented with additional, needed poems, while seven new poets, from Arthur Golding to Lady Mary Wroth, give further luster to the age's lyric achieve-ments.Similary, new prose by, aamong others. Sir Walter Ralegh, Roger Ascham, John Lyiy, and Aemilia Lanyer provides a larger overview.
Some 900 lines are added to John Milton's paradise lost, permitting stronger study of the "psychological Milton". Other major poets- especially John Donne, Ben Jonson, George Hrbert, and Robert herrick-heve been reviewed, and fresher poems found. The aims of the period's prose writers are now clearer, with more central selections from major writers and the addition of others, including, for example. Lady Anne Halkett and Dorothy Osbome.
William Congreve's masterwork The Way of the World has been restored , and Samuel Johnson's Rasselas is now complete. New poems by Anne Finch, Mathew Prior, John Gray and James Thompson, and new prose by Samuel Pepys, Daniel Defoe, and the newly anthologized Mary Astell.
Two major poets especially expanded: William Blake, with new selections, notably The Visio of the Daughters of Albion; William Wordsworth, whose Prelude is re- excerpted to offer more extended passages. Prose is more fully represented, with new esseys by William Hazlitt, Charles Lamb and Thomas Love Peacock, together with more of John Keats's letters, more of Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman and more of Percy Bysshe Shelley's Defence of Poetry.
Elizabeth Borrett Browning, Emily Bronte and Christina Rossetti now have a sufficient number and variety of poems, to enable them to be taught on a par with their male contamporaries.New poems by Robert Browning and Dante gabrial Rossetti; Gerard Manley Hopkins is now re-sen as a poet of Victorian Age.
More central poems have been selected for all the modernists, from Thomas Hardy to Dylan Thomas, while Joseph Conrad and James Joyce may be taught more fully with, respectively. Heart of Darkness and The Dead. George Orwell is illuminated by his Politics and the English Language and Virginia Woolfby her memoir, Moments of Being. Two essential new plays are Samual Beckett's Happy Days and Tom Stop-pard's The real Inspector Hound.A new section, "Poetry of World War the Second", parallels the revised "Poetry of World War the First". Contemporary, short fiction is by Edna O'Brien and Susan Hill, while newer poetry is finely reflected not only by additional poems for con-tamporary poets alrcdy in the anthology, from Philip Larkin to Seamus Heaney, but by the fresh inclusion ofDerck Walcott, Tony Harrison, Graig Rain and James Fenton.