ученицы 9-го класса
There is a good English saying: “So many countries so many customs.” Every country and every nation is rich in traditions and customs which comprise the culture of this nation. People keep and save their traditions, and the largest part of the traditions is connected with national customs and ceremonies. A great number of customs and traditions date back to the early days, and we can justly say that they are the reflection of the country’s history. To know the customs and traditions means to understand people, their art and culture better. Among people’s traditions and customs, we often come across traditional costumes.
I think the topic is relevant because everyone needs to know and love the history of the country he lives in. Only such a person can treat with respect and tolerance towards other peoples' cultures.
The object is traditional costumes.
The subject of the study is traditional costumes of Russia and Great Britain.
The hypothesis is that costumes of Russia and Great Britain are different because of different culture, climate, geographical position and history of these countries.
Why was the theme chosen by me?
The reason is the interest to culture and customs of the country we live in and other country, in particular Great Britain. For people, studying English and having interest to culture, this subject is particularly curious. The knowledge of traditions and customs of Great Britain helps us better know and understand the people of the country.
In my opinion, this subject is not so good studied.
The main aim of my work:
- study and compare traditional costumes of Russia and Great Britain.
- study Russian traditional costumes;
- get acquainted with national costumes of Great Britain;
- compare the results.
I solve these problems through thepractical and theoretical methods:
- work with literature about traditional costumes;
- collect information about traditional costumes in the Internet;
- analyse and compare traditional costumes of Russia and Great Britain.
When I prepare my work, I followed such methods as:
- descriptive method;
- collection of material;
- systematization of material;
- studying and analysing;
- making a conclusion.
2. Main body
2.1 Science article
Traditional costumes have been the focus of attention in recent years not only for practical work but also for scientific work. Traditional costumes, like all clothes, have to protect the wearer from environmental conditions and also should look nice. However, all costumes also have a social function. They show people the wearer’s role in society, their rank or social status as well as other details such as age or marital status.
2.1.1 Traditional Russian costume
Traditional Russian costume has been used since ancient times and up to now. It has notable features depending on the specific region, festive and for every day. Russian national costume became less common first after Peter I in 1699 banned the wearing of a national costume for everyone except peasants, monks, priests and deacons. Initially, the Hungarian dress was introduced, and then the upper-Saxon and French dress and the German jacket and underwear. Women had to wear a German dress. From all those who enter the city in Russian clothes and beards took a duty: 40 kopecks from the pedestrian and 2 rubles from the horse. Less popular Russian national costume became after the revolution. Nevertheless, in Russia folk costume was an integral part of the artistic appearance of the rural population: Russian dances, wedding ceremonies, gatherings, etc. Many people have a national costume as a festive costume until now. It is mastered as an artistic heritage by modern fashion designers, folk song and dance lives in the creation of ensembles.
Traditionally, peasant clothing, not affected by official legislation, has been preserved, the centuries-old stable forms that determine its originality. Until the beginning of the twentieth century, peasant costume concentrated the most typical features of the ancient Russian costume: cutting, decorating, wearing, and much more.
The top seasonal women's clothing, with the exception of finishes and some details, mostly differed little from the male. She often wore from an unpainted, natural color of cloth. Women wore seasonal clothes with handkerchiefs. In winter, sheepskin coats, sheepskin coats and sheepskin coats of black or brown-brown color were used as clothes. All the outer clothing when climbing out of the house rose with long sashes.
The main parts of the traditional women's outfit are a shirt and a sarafan. Our ancestors have worn shirts since time immemorial - this is confirmed by a number of related beliefs. For example, your own shirt was not sold: it was believed that this way you could sell your happiness. The shirt was the main, and sometimes the only clothes: according to custom, village boys and girls in the XIX century here and there before the wedding went in some shirts, intercepted by a girdle. The complex with a sarafan consisted of a shirt and a long sarafan, on top of it were put on a shower - a short breastplate on the straps. In the cold season, slip into the waist with a collar and sleeves. With such a costume the girls wore a bandage or a crown, and married ones - a kokoshnik.
They used fabrics of bright colors: red, blue, green, purple, blue, pink, white. Any peasant costume was necessarily complemented by footwear woven or rolled. Just like outerwear, shoes were almost the same for women and men and differed only in size and decorations.
Men's clothing usually consisted of a shirt and trousers - "ports", on top of which they wore top clothes "for the season." Shirts were wide, knee-length and belted belt. The gate was connected with ribbons or metal clasps - "crabs". Later, bronze, copper, bone buttons with "air" loops are used. In the upper part of the shirt from the inside for durability, the fabric was sewn - "underpinnings", and under the sleeves - "crotch". The colors of the shirts are different: more often white, blue and red.
In the folk costume, division into the ordinary, work, festive, ceremonial was clearly observed. Festive clothing has always been newer. It was often made of expensive fabric, made up of a large number of items, abundantly decorated. Festive clothing was also shared: one was worn on Sundays, another on great annual holidays. To her adjoin and ceremonial suits: a maiden girl, a wedding, a funerary (sometimes he's also a wedding). It is interesting that the reaping, working shirt was ritualized to the rank of festive and decorated especially luxuriously. The everyday costume for work on the house and in the field was made of especially durable fabrics and was ornamented more modestly. Clothing has always emphasized family and age differences. Headgear of girls and women differed, and old women are also known. The widows wore white clothes.
The child's costume was almost completely repeated by an adult, but consisted of fewer objects. In the wardrobe of the well-to-do peasant woman there were brocade sarafans, fur-covered soulgirls, headdresses decorated with pearls. In poor families domotkanina prevailed, as a finishing material we used cloth, small river pearls, bugles, beads, bird fluff and colored feathers.
The clothes of the Russians changed with a change in their way of life and corresponded to the social status of the people who carried it. For a long time the clothes could determine where a person lives. When studying the originals of the Russian folk costume, their characteristic difference was found for all geographical zones and regions. This is due to the almost universal settled way of life, the low level of migration of the population.
Russian folk costume has always been an object of material and spiritual culture. Simultaneously with this quality, it is a sign (symbol) coding sexual, regional, functional differences of people, a special way of communication.
2.1.2 Traditional British costume
In an economically developed country like Great Britain, old folk clothes have long since been forgotten. Some semblance of it is preserved now only in stylized folk costumes of dance, members of the national folk dance society. The majority of the population of Great Britain today wears a European-style dress. But with all this, it still has its own specific features for each people. Often the expression "English style", "English costume" is used. The traditional English style of clothing is characterized by elegance, austerity and simplicity of the cut lines, the absence of unnecessary details and small ornaments, soft, calm tones of fabrics.
In the UK some professional differences preserved in clothing, in its details. Workers, as a rule, wear kepi, while dockers of port cities, in addition, tend to tie a variegated handkerchief around their necks. Many older farmers prefer to wear long out-of-fashion costumes-troika and felt hats. Even now in the business districts of the City you can see clerks dressed in the old tradition in exactly the same way: narrow striped trousers, a black jacket, a tall white collar, a hat-pot on his head, and an invariable black umbrella in his hands.
Medieval clothes are also used in some mostly official cases. Old clothes are worn, for example, by the members of the royal family during the coronation ceremony and the officials of the parliament on the opening day of the session. Judges and lawyers sit in court robes at court sessions, and their heads are covered with a medieval powdered wig. Black robes on a scarlet lining and quadrangular black caps are worn by professors and students of the oldest English universities. The Royal Guard still wears the form of the XVI century.
Despite the long history and established traditions, the English do not have a strict national costume, but they have recognizable English uniforms. This, for example, is a costume of beefeaters (Beefeaters - letters, "meat eaters") - a scarred camisole embroidered with gold, stockings and a black round hat with fields worn by the guards of the Tower of London. Red tunics and caps from bear skins of the Royal Guards infantry. The dance of Morris is a ritual dance, from time immemorial performed by men in the villages in the summer. It was believed that the dance is directly related to the awakening of the earth.
The dancer's costume usually consists of a white shirt, black breeches, a green waistcoat, and a straw or felt hat. The magic properties were bells, which were tied around the shins, as well as flowers and ribbons that adorned the hat. It was believed that these accessories scared off evil spirits and attracted fertility.
However, it is believed that the national English costume should be considered clothing of Anglo-Saxon tribes, who lived in the seventh to eighth century AD in the county of Kent. The man's suit consisted of light linen shirts that were worn out and dark trousers, on the belt of which men wore a dagger. On the chest of the Anglo-Saxon men's shirt was a deep neckline, pulled together by a string, while the lace was laced crosswise. The woman's costume consisted of a light linen shirt with long gowns, a belted female caftan was put on top of a woman's shirt, which did not fasten.
The most faithful depiction of folk English costume can be considered a suit, consisting of several parts. One of the main parts of women's clothing was a wide linen white shirt (smock) almost to the knees, with sewn wide sleeves with gussets. The sleeves did not have cuffs, but the wrists narrowed with the help of a few stitched small creases. The shirt had a straight cut from the front and a turndown collar; on the chest, collar, at the bottom of the sleeves, she was abundantly decorated with bright embroidery. Above such a shirt, a rural woman usually wore a dark, wide skirt up to the calves, at the waist gathered in an assembly and trimmed along the hem with a bright braid or ribbon. A light apron was tied over the skirt, and also trimmed with bright braid underneath. On cool days, a dark short blouse was worn on the shirt, tightly fitting at the waist, with long sleeves and a deep neckline on the chest. Head-dresses were white caps of various shapes, more often with a wide frill framing the face, or small straw hats. The necessary accessory of the female costume was also a large checkered shawl with fringe. This costume was worn by many rural women and even by some factory workers.
Welsh national costume is in some way a fake. It was developed in the XIX century, on the initiative of Lady Lanover, who feared - and not without reason - that the Welsh culture is on the verge of extinction. Created on the basis of rural women's dress of the time, it consists of a flannel underskirt, which is worn under the top swing outfit, an apron, a red shawl and a headdress - a handkerchief or a hat.
A high "chimney-hat" appeared later, in the 1840s. National costume Welsh wear only on the occasion of festive public events; In the supermarket it does not go.
The Irish people's costume has also not existed for more than 300 years. Elements of clothing were similar to English peasant clothing. The upper estate was divided into clans and they had a similar clothing like the Scots. Today, the national Irish costume is associated, in many cases, primarily with the clothes of steppe dancers. Their outfits successfully combined together folk ornaments, as well as ancient and modern details of clothing. Women wore this short bright dress embroidered with multicolored embroidery and greatly expanded downwards, and men wore a jacket, shirt with a tie and a skirt.
The most striking example of the national costume of Great Britain is the Scottish costume. Many began to study Scotland only because the Scots have such original costumes. In this case, not everyone sees the difference between the kilt and mother's plaid skirt in the fold. Requirements for costumes are due to historical sources. Scotland, a harsh country, is a country of transparent lakes and rocky mountains that gave the world oatmeal, Scotch terriers, penicillin, Loch - Ness monster, raincoat from the rain - mackintosh and, of course, the clothes of these highlanders - kilt.
National Scottish clothing is a costume, very beautiful, harmonious, unusual in the selection of details, in which it is important to take into account any little things, because without a goatskin bag or kilt pin the costume will cease to be truly Scottish.
As in any society, the Scottish clan had its own hierarchy. The word clan (English clan, Gaelic clan) is of Gaelic origin and is translated as "children, offspring, descendants". The Scottish clan consisted mainly of two large groups of people - "relatives" and "outsiders." Earlier in Scotland there was a color difference kilt. Depending on his rank, a person had the right to wear a kilt with a limited set of colored stripes in the fabric. For example, the six-colored kilt was the exclusive privilege of the king. Also, a set of flowers in the kilt was allowed to judge where the person came from, as weavers had a limited choice for the area of the plants, from which it was possible to get the paint.
The Scottish national costume consists of:
- kilt (pleated woolen skirt)
- goatskin bag
- kilt pin
- knee-high socks
- tweed jacket
The word kilt comes from the Anglo-Scottish kilt, meaning "wrapping clothes around the body." In turn, the Scottish word comes from the Old Norse kilt ("folded"), which came from the Vikings, who had similar but without tartan, folded clothing. It comes about, a piece of cloth, about four or five yards in length, 3657-4572 mm wide, with a width of 56-60 inches, 142-151 centimeters of material. This outfit is a "remnant" from a large blanket. Initially, a large wool blanket was wrapped around the waist and fastened with a long and wide belt. The rest of the rug was gathered into folds and pinned with a brooch to the shirt or jacket on the left shoulder. Such a large rug perfectly protected from bad weather in the mountains. Few people guess that the kilt - this is not just a comfortable for someone's men's skirt, it's also a sign of distinction. A man walking in a plaid skirt is walking around in the flag. And a person familiar with the symbols of the Scottish clans, it is not difficult to determine which clan this flag belongs to - McDonald's, McPherson, McLynn.
The color of the skirt should be a specific - in accordance with the tartan - woolen fabric with a pattern of lines of different widths and different colors that cross each other at certain angles. There are many different tartans, each of which is associated with a certain Scottish clan. And wearing someone else's colors is a social violation and it's also unacceptable, as a ship to raise a foreign flag on the mast. This is strictly observed in Scotland by the responsible person, the chief Herald, the keeper of the arms and seniority of the clans. Tartan - in ancient Gaelic, from which the word came, means the color of the terrain.
Traditionally, in addition to kilt, the Scottish national costume includes a tweed jacket, simple long stockings, and a leather wrangler - a purse that hangs on a narrow strap that covers the hips. This version of the costume is worn in the afternoon. For the evening there is another version of the costume - the kilt is put on with a fur spore, stockings with a certain tartan, a complicated jacket and a ruffled shirt. Sporran is a belt bag worn on kilts, most often leather, with fur trim. Today it is a decorative part of the traditional dress of the mountaineers, but before that it was a very practical object and was used as a protection against falling arrows, for which it was pinned by wood and metal.
Hairpins for keels fasten the cloth of the kilt. The history of their occurrence is unknown. Kilt pins are usually forged in the form of a sword, each clan has its own "weapon". They are made of silver and other light metals.
Scottish Beret is a woolen hat without margins with a pompon or feather on top worn slightly shifting to one side. It is worth mentioning such a detail of a suit as a knife. The true mountaineer behind his right stocking should wear a knife, on the handle of which is engraved a flower of a thistle and topaz is set. It should be noted that the Scots are committed to the old traditions. Bernard Shaw wrote: "The Scots hate freedom and equality too much to understand them."
Scots are strictly supported by old customs and preserve their national culture, and also preserved their national costume. Scots are proud of their history and national culture.
2.2 Plan of research
To solve the tasks identified in the beginning I made the plan of research:
- find the information;
- explore the information and compare the Russian national costume and national costumes of parts of Great Britain;
- make a conclusion.
According to our research we got the results.
Russian national costume (Appendix 1)
The Russian women’s costume was based on the “rubakha” (a linen shirt or blouse). It was made of flaxen embroidery, silk lace, golden threads and spangles. Collars and sleeves were decorated extensively. The most widespread women costumes were of two types: the South Russian one with poneva (a homespun woollen skirt), and the Mid-Russian one with a sarafan (a kind of sleeveless dress). The typical colour of the sarafan and skirts was red, as this color literally translates to “beautiful” .One of the most common type of festive head-dress was the "kokoshnik", it was masterfully decorated with river pearls, meshwork of pearls, golden and silver needlework, coloured foil and decorative stones Men’s costume was composed of a long shirt (rubakha- kosovorotka shirt with a stand-up collar fastening on the side), trousers (porty), a belt (poyas – kushak), and bast shoes (later boots). The woven shoes commonly made from fibres of the birch tree. No longer worn in modern times, today they are a decorative piece hanging in people’s homes. The cap (kartuz) came into being in the late 19th century, and it was decorated with a flower In winter, Russians wore the fur coat (shuba) and wool felt footwear (valenki). It was extremely practical and effective in a cold northern climate. Shubas were made of fur turned inside or ‘wrong-side out’. The traditional male warm hat with flaps – ushanka (derived from the word ushi – ears) or treukh - was used to protect the ears from cold. Woman wore traditional Russian knitting shawls and beautiful wool scarves.
Traditional costumes of Great Britain (Appendix 2).
▪ Irish traditional costumes make you think of Irish folk dancing. Female dancers wear a long-sleeved dress, knee-high white socks and black shoes. The colorful patterns on the dresses are based on Celtic designs.
▪ Probably the best known traditional costume in the UK is the Scottish kilt with its distinctive tartan pattern. Kilts were pleated woolen skirts, worn only by men, and fastened in front with a special pin. A goatskin bag called a sporran was worn around the waist and a cloak was draped over one shoulder. Each clan or family had its own tartan design. The kilt is still worn on special occasions today.
▪ What everyone recognizes about the Welsh costume is its tall black hat or “beaver hat”, worn over a lace cap. Women in the past wore it with a long full skirt and a white apron. A shawl, usually red, was worn around the shoulders. The outfit was complete with black shoes and stockings, and ladies carried a basket.
▪ Morris dancing with its traditional costumes is a familiar sight in England. These dances are performed outdoors in country villages during the summer. The dancers wear white trousers, a loose white shirt and a pad of bells around the bottom half of the leg. Their hats are decorated with ribbons and flowers, and they wave handkerchiefs in the air as they dance.
According to our research we made a table with a description of each costume. (Appendix 3)
According to the table we compared traditional Russian and British costumes and got the results. We also made a list of differences and similarities. There are more differences than similarities.
The footwear of Russian costume is a pair of boots or bastshoes and of the British costumes is a pair of shoes (usually black).
There is a blouse (usually white) in each national costume.
I had a very interesting research and learned a lot of English words on the topic "Clothes".
Bib – a small apron, worn on the chest for decoration or protection from dirt.
Bast shoes – low shoes, common in Russia in the old days, woven from bark wood.
Sundress – widespread in Eurasia women's clothes in a sleeveless dress.
Poneva – the element of Russian folk costume, a woolen skirt of married women made of several pieces of fabric with an ornate hem.
Kokoshnik – an old Russian headwear crescent-shaped ridge or a round shield, an element of Russian traditional costume.
Apron – a subject at home and clothing designed to protect against dirt on basic clothing.
Kilt - pleated woolen skirt
Sporran- goatskin bag
I confirmed the hypothesis that the costumes of Great Britain and Russia are different, because of different culture, climate, geographical position and history of these countries.
National costume is not only one of the most precious monuments of folk art and social history, but also one of the richest resources for studying ethnicity.
To visualize the information, I made a booklet with all traditional costumes of Russia and Great Britain. The booklet helps see all colorfulness of the costumes and imagine how different they are. Also I made a presentation about traditional costumes of Russia and Great Britain.
The practical value of my work is that the presentation and the booklet can be used not only at the lessons of English but also of History, Art, Technology, where students can deepen their knowledge in traditions, history and culture of the United Kingdom and Russia.
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